Visual Memory Research
The Genesis of Mnemonic Visual Systems 
Recurrent Dynamics in Excitable Media

Topic C7: The Dynamic Engrams (Motion-Memory)

Quo Vadis?

"Motion-memory ... an activity beyond perceptual processes."  Tulving, 1990

"For subsequent deployment in cognitive judgments ... a motion memory system must … necessarily be maintained ... with some degree of accuracy."  Blake, 1997

"Retrieval and use of relational memory depends critically on the hippocampus and occurs obligatorily, regardless of response requirements."  Hannula, 2007

"Recursive engrams are the covert off-line substrates which support the conscious perceptions of dynamic online scenes."  IXP, 2008


ABSTRACT

          Findings:  Explicit evidence of recursive visual-memory systems is obtained when viewing dynamic events, or following the idiocentric saccadic -reading of texts.  Primary engrams reach conscious perception with eyes closed in room lighting being rendered visible only in   a stochastic resonance  attained in this umbral viewing mode. Engrams are  generally imperceptible in the dark or in  fields homotopic  with on-line images, yet  remain  accessible to cognition. 


      Dynamic Engrams are semantic  images  registered  in parity with their objective sources;  distinction from the Motion After-Effects phenomena (MAE).  The Recursive Engrams as witnessed  are achromatic and of low resolution, yet replicate off-line  those features observed on-line and within- one -context. 
Regardless of whether the scene had been observed attentively or casually, 
its features remain in register, retaining form-with-motion in a unified display. 
          Whereas the scene itself had itself been scanned, the dynamic engram remains unscannable; its psychic projection shifts with head or eye motion in response to ongoing vestibular or oculomotor signals.  
          Engrams are explicit only in an "umbral view," the eyes being closed but illuminated. These phenomenal visual engrams, witnessed off-line may persist for up to 120 seconds. (Glenn A. Fry in the Am. J. Opt., 1969)

Present Purpose:  To introduce unexploited means for subjective access to semantic recursive ENGRAMS .  A literature search has not disclosed reports of these visually-explicit entoptic phenomena which are imperceptible in the dark or in  fields homotopic  .
with on-line images These phenomenal visual engrams, witnessed off-line may persist for up to 120 seconds. (Glenn A. Fry in the Am. J. Opt., 1969)

.  Entoptic images are introspective experiences of endogenous patterns, generated either by innate hardwiring or by inculcate software.
   Recursive motion engrams are clearly distinguishable from the chromatic flash photic after-images, from "imagery," and from the reversed MAE                                      
 
INTRODUCTIONS  to MOTION-MEMORY ENGRAMS
                        
In 1971, Buresová, Bures and Rustová published papers entitled:
"Acquisition and Retrieval of Visual Engrams"
"Consolidation of Visual Engrams"
"Interocular and Interhemispheric Transfer of Visual Engrams
in Callosotomized Rats"

X. Huang et al, 2008  "A serendipitous observation led to the study of V1 activity rebounds, which occur well after stimulus offset ... and may provide new insight into the dynamics of early visual processing."  

I  myself first encountered the "Semantic Motion Memory Engrams"  on September 8, 2001, an experience which prompted  these ongoing studies of mnemonic phenomena.

  During a UCTV seismology lecture a sequence of dynamic graphic images was being presented at 7:00 a.m.  This TV program had  featured two talking-heads and four graphic segments in which each  event happened to illustrate a different motion mode.

  At the conclusion of each pictorial segment my eyes were then  lightly closed while listening to the speakers , and to my surprise the recursive image representations of each preceding episode shortly  emerged to view.   Each "illusory motile event" was witnessed  for about ten seconds, but in the interest of viewing the next audibly-announced upcoming graphic sequence, the eyes were reopened, thus the "after-images" were not left to expire, or to reiterate.  Following each observed motile  event, and following the eye closures,  the a motile c engram appeared shortly, and an "illusory rerun" or replay was witnessed.


                          The TV program provided four graphic sequences:

1) Concentric centrifugal seismic surface waves were graphically superimposed on a map of the San Francisco area (oscillation/radiation).  This map was stated to be replayed three times at triple real-speed.
2) Graphics simulated a sinusoidal swaying motion of a tall structure.
3) Arial camera views of Bay Bridge showed sway and angulations at the two expansion joints.
4) Views from the air of traffic moving (linear translation) on the bridge, and with a changing-perspective of the camera angle, optic flow (point-of-view) with parallax.




[ insert image from San Andreas Fault here ]




The above sketch and the following appended, unabridged, comments were promptly inscribed:


Onset.  Following each of some 10 seconds of the visual priming during each graphic segment and after a latency delay of 3–4 seconds following eye closure, illusory rerun or replay was seen.


Morphology.  There was apparently a faithful representation of the contours and topology of the depicted structures.


Rendering.  This was achromatic, grainy, with only fair resolution.  These motile semantic images appeared as monochrome or sepia, resembling old Daguerro-type photographs though in a movie forma.


Motion.  These appeared to be in real-time, and the various dynamics duplicated my immediate recollection of the original visual experience of each of the four-event segments.  The note then asked:  matching recollection … this recognition provided from what other mental repository?  (and how many repositories?)  Van der Velde et al, 2008, models "Multiple interacting instantiations of neural dynamics as a highly modular multi-level C++ framework."


September 18, 2001.  This second engram event was experienced and was documented more briefly:  a persistent replay of TV tickertape with motion … depends on the ambient light through lids … sustained for 1–2 minutes … with positive image … none seen in the dark.


The above events were unprecedented experiences of a phenomenal visual motion memory system.  Those initial findings have been substantiated to date, 2008, with confirmation of temporal parameters and state adaptations, notably the umbral status (tag: ☹) with the ambient light through closed lids.


"It requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli, but the resulting learning then occurs without intent or awareness." (Turk-Browne et al, 2005)  In the simple protocols outlined below, linear translation was selected for its convenience and the availability on commercial TV of the empirically-designed, non-ergodic horizontal presentations, which included banners, news clips or tickertape and a variety of un-standardized ascending credits.


Fredericksen and Hess, 1997, found, "The spatial properties of motion sensitive cells (human) match to the statistical properties of "natural scenes"; velocity peaks ranging from 0.25 to 5.66 c/degrees."

PROTOCOLS  
DYNAMIC MOTION-MEMORY ENGRAMS

ONE
1. Induction and Longevity of  the .Engrams 
2. Outcomes from Intervention
3. Subsequent Vestibular Modulation
4. Explicit Replay of Spreading Textures
5. Engram Perceptions with Subjacent Online View
6. With Asymmetric Ocular Input (Inter-ocular Transfer?)
7. Optic Flow and the Motion Engrams

TWO
Natural Scenes, with Autonomous Mnemonic Registration
"Ecologically Valid Stimuli"
DynamicVisual Engrams ( DVE)  vis-à-vis the MAE

THREE 
DynamicVisual Engrams  vis-à-vis the MAE phenomena 


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PART ONE     

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Protocol One
Induction and Longevity of the  Dynamic Visual Engrams ( DVE)

Mesopic adaptation and mesopic ambient light are generally favorable for the generating and witnessing of robust engrams; "learning then occurs without intent or awareness." (Turk-Browne et al, 2005)

In the simple protocols below linear translation was selected for its convenience and the availability on commercial TV of the "empirically-designed" non-ergodic horizontal news clips or tickertape.

Step 1:  The timed exposure selected here is 10 seconds, ample for an engram capture of rolling credits or of tickertape.  With any commercial TV screen set at a convenient distance, either a fixed gaze or randomized viewing strategies may be employed.  During normal saccadic viewing, a fixation sampling rate may be around 1–3 per second; this is considered a low sampling rate for the detection of motion.  "A faster integration of low-spatial frequency starts in early retinal processes, as compared with high-spatial frequency." (Mermillod et al, 2005)

Step 2:  At 10–14 seconds the eyes are now closed in room lighting.  Only the salient reset after-images of any diffuse, luminous areas are at first perceptible, but their contours fade over a couple seconds.  

Step 3:  At 16 seconds there is now the perception of a positive engram.  Seen only with the closed illuminated eyes these motile images emerge as achromatic and granular.  In this umbral view the engram may reiterate for up to 120 seconds.


                      ********************************

Protocol Two
Outcomes from Intervention

This second sequence demonstrates the outcomes from interventions applied to an already established, visible engram, as identified by Step 3 of Protocol One.

Step 4:  When complete occlusion is applied for several seconds the only visible pattern remaining in the dark is now the intrinsic rosette template, q.v., a black background with luminous blue cluster oscillations.  The engram pattern itself is imperceptible in the dark.

Step 5:  Now, again with the illuminated closed lids the engram is restored to view.

Step 6:  But next, with momentary full exposure to room light or to an articulated scene, the engram is erased.

Step 7:  On restoring illumination to closed lids, the engram now is non-recoverable, irrevocably erased from view.
On Disruption
"Eidetic imagery is critically dependent on level of illumination, and its contents are easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli." (Miller, Peacock, 1982)  "Disruption of implicit perceptual memory by intervening neutral stimuli is reported." (Verstraten et al, 2007)

On Visible Longevity
Without an intervening, disruptive visual input, a recycling engram expires only when its "working memory life" is exhausted, apparently at a maximum of two minutes.  The cycling is terminated earlier by a reordering of the veridical visual environment, such as a novel visual event or increase in ambient light.  At Step 3, darkness evidently did not signal for cancellation of looping, for although an established engram is not visible in complete darkness, it can be restored to view at Step 5, if initiated within the time limits of its potential two-minute longevity.  As in a computer, there may be one terminator within the nested loop (inherent time limited) and other outside terminators, as Step 5, here a novel or updated visual event.

On the Delayed Conscious Perception of the Engram.
  Protocol One.  Although there is perceptual impenetrance in the 4–second "delay phase," the engram was already deployed for predictive judgments and precipitous responses.  "In observers exposed to gradual contrast changes of stimuli … brain activity was recorded with functional neuroimaging stimuli prior to its sensory perception." (Kleinschmit et al, 2002)

The engrams of dynamic scenes seen in achromatic coarse rendering are believed channeled for prompt autonomous deployment.  "Many action tasks have strict temporal constraints, which can only be met if the visual information is relayed directly to the motor system without first passing through a conscious decision-making process." (Goodale et al, 2005)

Harter and Kozma, 2005, introduced "systems capable of replicating the important principles of a periodic/chaotic neurodynamic while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications."  The delayed visible recursions reported in the umbral-viewing mode are adventitious, inadvertent and only incidentally perceptible to conscious awareness while en route to other cerebral addresses (as read-only?).

On Engram Content and Spatial Parity.                                               
   Engrams retain the precise spatial placements imposed during induction by the contemporary inputs from online sensori-motor heteromodal inputs.  (See Protocol Three.)

On the Coarse Engram Rendering.                                                      
   "The human perceptual system seems to be driven by a coarse-to-fine integration of visual information; results have shown a faster integration of low-spatial frequency lossy compared with high-spatial frequency information, starting at early retinal processes." (Mermillod et al, 2005     Principles at coarse scale ... organize the cortical spatial arrangements

*********************************************
Protocol Three
Vestibular Modulations and Off-line Perceptions
Modifications of the Engram Perceptions

On TV, vertically-rolling credits are commonly presented.  These may either be read or observed casually for 10 seconds while the engram (as a persistent dynamic image) is being generated.
Then with closed, lit eyes, the up-going lines, now as an engram text, can be consciously monitored.
The apparent angular momentum of the ascending credit lines may then be matched by a deliberate smooth pursuit, made  with head motion only.
While elevating the chin to track the motion through some 70 vertical degrees, these up-going lines thus appear as if frozen in space, linked with the idiothetic heading.
At the azimuth, the tracked images may still appear to remain "immobile" for a further four seconds while the maximally-elevated head posture is steadily maintained.
After this four-second delay the up-rolling motion of the lines of text resumes at the original pace while the elevated head remains immobilized.  Clearly the oculomotor-vestibular input operated during an engram acquisition, and a vestibular effect, was also demonstrable after the initiating "priming" event had concluded, as could be detected thereafter as an "updating" of a visuospatial engram.

          Engrams retain the precise spatial placements imposed during induction by the contemporary inputs from online sensori-motor heteromodal inputs, including the vestibular inputs which operate both during the initiating "priming event and demonstrable upon the recursive engram display.  Vestibular in-puts can also modify the Helmholtz Travelling Waves (HTW).  These slow wave-fronts traverse an angular subtense of ~ 180 degrees in about four seconds, but during a brief four-second smooth pursuit made by head-motion, and can exhibit the interactive vestibular phenomenon of a motional hiatus.  The "long wavelength (> 15 cm) traveling waves propagate from occipital to prefrontal electrodes" (Srinivasan, 2006); putative classic HTW.

Vestibular Phantom Grids.  Under passive rotations with closed eyes it appears that changes in the direction of angular momentum may enable the perception of a "laggard phantom grid."  This unreported phenomenon is attributable to an asynchrony between the slower retinal and the faster labyrinthine-sourced transmissions, which accounts for the noted temporal lag.

Postural Changes.  A Foveal After-Image (FAI) is imprinted in primary horizontal gaze, then after 3–5 seconds in motionless down-gaze, this FAI image appears to drift slowly upwards at a rate of some 10 seconds over the 90 degrees.  If however a smooth pursuit is made by slowly elevating globe and chin, this "target" FAE  can be tracked upwards; it tends to stabilize as horizontal centering is attained.  If instead the proclivity to pursue the FAI by smooth pursuit is denied, a linear chain of luminous nodes may now materialize below the "captive FAI."  
       Alternatively, with a 10-second horizontal FAI installation, and then by immediately elevating the gaze to ensconce FAI at an up-gaze starting point, the scenario is reversed: there is a down-drift of the after-image towards horizontality.  These slow drifts presumably are generated by otolithic somato-centric responses, signaling both oculomotor and cervical and spinal musculature.
        By changes in vestibular angular momentum the apparent dynamics of an established engram may be modified; the engram's dynamics remain unaffected by varied oculomotor activity, but the engram may be disrupted.

Loose, Probst, 2001.  "Angular velocity, not acceleration of self motion, mediates vestibular-visual interaction."

Bertin, Berthoz, 2004.  "Visuo-vestibular interaction in the reconstruction of travelled trajectories.  We show for the first time that a vestibular stimulus of short duration can influence the perception of a much longer-lasting visual stimulus."

Trappenberg et al, 2005.  With single neuron recordings found with primates that "hippocampal spatial-view cells … not only maintained their spatial firing in the absence of visual input …" (motion memory sustained!) "… but could also be updated in the dark by idiothetic input."

Wei et al, 2006.  "Visuo-spatial updating uses vestibular information.  Intact labyrinthine signals are functionally useful for proper visuo-spatial memory updating during passive head and body movements."
Fetsch et al, 2007.  As a function of the relative strength and spatial congruency of visual and vestibular tuning, the reference frames in the combined condition varied as a function of the relative strength and spatial congruency of these inputs.  Tuning for optic flow was predominantly eye-centered, whereas tuning for inertial motion was intermediate but closer to head-centered.  (See Protocol Six.)

Smooth Pursuits

  A vessel at sea is observed on a TV screen; the resultant engram is then viewed.  Either the moving vessel or the receding wake may be selected as the target for smooth pursuit in the engram.

September 13, 2005.  By postural corporeal smooth pursuit, I observe flocks of pigeons wheeling across some 180 degrees.  A visual engram  replay may be deliberately accompanied by a replication of the combined postural and head motions, a vestibulo- motor memory.  Such behavioral responses may be videotaped.  de’Sperati, 2005, recorded by infrared oculography the eye movements during the "mental extrapolation of (memorized) saccadic motion.  The subjects were primed by targets oscillating sinusoidally by +/- 5 degrees on the horizontal plane, at frequencies between 0.15 and 0.5 Hz 
 .DeLucia, 2006.  "Mechanisms that underlie boundary extension and representational momentum … contribute to the integration of successive views of a scene while this is changing."

Ruiz-Ruiz, Martinez-Trujillo, 2008.  "Human Updating of Visual Motion Direction during Head Rotations."

IXP, 2008.  The idiothetic updating of motion engrams is demonstrable.


************************************************
Protocol Four
Explicit Replay of Spreading Textures

After idly gazing at graph paper, at a shag rug, a sleeping dog, a page of print or a complex dynamic scene, the unique textural character of each field may then be distinguished with closed, illuminated eyes.  After a couple seconds delay these textures emerge as positive-featured, achromatic images of low resolution across the whole field.

Theories of Textural Discrimination and of Spreading.  "A roving local sampling window … allows the visual system to derive from any particular texture image an estimate of the ensemble statistics over the window … without the need to present multiple samples for evaluation .... Single neurons in V1 can signal the presence of higher-order spatial correlations in visual textures … This places a computational mechanism, which may be essential for form vision at the earliest stage of cortical processing." (Tyler, 2004)

Dynamic Texture Spreading.  "…probing the mechanisms of surface interpolation ... indicates that information fragments are integrated over a time window of about 100 to 180 ms to form a complete surface representation." (Wollschlager and Faul, 2006)

Directional Harmonic Theory.  Lehar, 2003, described "a computational Gestalt model to account for illusory contour and vertex formation."

Integration of Sequential and Related Texture Patterns.  Compatible recursive engrams exhibit a perceptual transparency/percolation.

September 23, 2001.  Observing TV screen for several minutes, fixation ranged over the talking-heads and over the text.  By viewing tickertape with three horizontal lines, ciphers streaming to the left, the motile Engram A was established and verified as a persistent image seen through a red lid … continuous movement … of an illegible afterimage.

Next, with the head tilted 45 degrees to the left, a second motile Engram B was acquired.  Then, with eyes closed, both sets of lines were represented simultaneously.  Note then reads on reversing head position ... the archived surviving after-image crisscrosses the recent imprint.  The final sketch indicates horizontality restored of the original engram, tilt of the overlying second "imprint" as seen in the composite umbral view.  Fluctuating, patchy integrations seen between successive arrays represented in the two sustained mnemonic visual images.

"Exact site percolation thresholds using a site-to-bond transformation, and the star-triangle transformation." (Wandell et al, 2005)

December 22, 2003.  It was noted and then documented that after sketching or writing in ink on a page of standard lightly ruled ¼ inch graph paper the overall orthogonal texture geometry (grid) persists in memory seen with closed, lit eyes.  Curiously, the darker ink inscriptions on the graph paper were rendered coarsely and illegible, whereas the overall grid lines remained clear and crisp.  (Note:  A fixed gaze is not required to establish these engrams.)

April 26, 2007.  The above phenomenon in 2003 was recently duplicated and subjected to further scrutiny.  An array (the standard graph paper itself) is presented for 10 seconds for each of two orientations in sequence.  Each presentation retains a mnemonic visual image (engram) to be verified promptly during the sequential umbral views, thus:

1)  The First Array.  The overall orthogonal texture geometry (grid) persists in memory seen with closed, lit eyes; the darker ink inscriptions on the graph paper again appear coarse and illegible, while the overall grid remains clear and crisp.  The precise fine grid geometry is also clearly perceptible against a brightly-lit screen, being perceptible then only with the imposed flicker.  Repeating the 2003 experiences of the First Array, its texture engram is then verified, having been set up as a foil for this next event.

2)  The Second Array.  This is now the same target, reoriented; the graph paper being rotated through 45 degrees.  On eye closures, the engram of the first orientation persists, incorporated with the second engram.  Thus in umbral view, and also in the flicker-viewing condition, these two engrams compete, seen as fluctuating patches, with the squared texture areas either in rivalry, or mutually engaged as integrated patches of octagons.

3)  Rescaling the Second Array.  Easily accomplished by doubling or halving the viewing distance from the target grid, this ploy also demonstrates fluctuant incorporations.

4)  Moiré Patterns.  These were seen to develop spontaneously while witnessing the engrams (2 plus 3 above).  These moiré engram patterns were also susceptible to modulation by imposing flicker onscreen.

5)  Online Moiré Patterns which develop during an online viewing of an orthogonal metal-mesh window screen typically emerge with periodic magnifications of about 3.3 scales, and at 45-degree rotations, indicating intrinsic processing architecture.

6)  Transparent Incongruent Arrays also can be incorporated as engrams.  A ¼ inch graph paper is placed over the monitor screen, which displays a large regular array of desktop icons, or other "texture" display.  These incongruent textures can then be maintained as an engram, demonstrable so in umbral view and also with flicker.

Deviation Detectors.  Primitive sensor mechanisms have evolved to discern deviations arising in natural environmental textures.  Human skills in pattern minutiae recognition have culminated in sophisticated discriminations enabling the reading of texts.  (This parallel mnemonic system is apparently dedicated solely to graphic-lexical inputs, proceeding "from texture to text.")

                                       ******************************
Protocol Five
Engram Perceptions with Subjacent Online View
with half-lowered lids

With vertical hemi-field segregation, can exogenic and endogenous images simultaneously enter perception?

Competition between Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting of Visual Attention. (Berger et al, 2005)

December 19, 2001, perceptions from vertically separate fields.  In up-gaze, with lowered lids occluding only the upper field, the images of the real objects in the lower field of view may be projected normally into external space and constitute the "object-based frame of reference" for the observer.  Meanwhile an acquired engram may still persist, vignetted behind the half-lowered upper lid; shielded in this upper field it is retained in the umbral view.  The two adjacent images show no transparency or overlap, and the engram preserves its own umbral domain sector within the cognitive field.  This engram image may become disrupted by eye motion, but not by smooth head motion.

Explicit perceptions of the environment and perceptions of recursive engrams are state-dependent, and are mutually exclusive.

With heterotopic fields, an engram is perceptible with an online subjacent image.  The umbral status is equivalent to the introduction of noise ... stochastic resonance ... "the counterintuitive phenomenon in which noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli." (Perez et al, 2007)  Yet an offline engram can persist if sheltered in a secluded umbral view, i.e., if not in the same phase-space.

Sdoia et al, 2004, investigated "the relation between visual hemi-fields and spatial frames of reference,  according to the idea that multiple representations of 3D space exist."  Results from two experiments clearly show that an upper visual hemifield advantage only arises when allocentric spatial judgments are required in order to perform a location task, whereas a lower visual hemifield advantage arises when egocentric spatial judgments are required.

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Protocol Six
With Asymmetric Ocular Input  (Inter-ocular Transfer?)

Apparent  “ Inter-Ocular Transfer"  . This  phenomenon emerges  following   articulated input to one eye ,  with  low- luminance  input  to its fellow ,  and  relates to  the role of the  Stochastic noise generated in  the fellow eye .IXP.

" Acquisition and retrieval of visual engrams" " Consolidation of visual engrams."  " Interocular and interhemispheric transfer of visual engrams in callosotomized rats"Buresová O, Bures J, Rustová M:1971
   
Complete interocular  transfer of motion adaptation, effects on motion coherence thresholds.  Vision Res. 1993. Raymond JE. (

    "We conclude that the type of occlusion used for measuring IOT. is important only when visible contours in the non-adapting eye  contribute to the adapting process.  '                                                                                                                                                                    Timney B,1996   

"IOT does not appear to strongly depend on conventional binocularity of neurons". Cereb Cortex. 2008   Interocular Transfer of Adaptation in the Primary Visual cortex                                                                          .                                                                                                        .. Howarth CM,  2008       

"It is well established that motion aftereffects (  MAEs) can show interocular transfer (IOT); that is, motion adaptation in one eye can  ' give a MAE in the other eye '." Tao R, Lankheet MJ, van de Grind WA, van Wezel RJ. 2003  see   C7 <> 8 

The stochastic noise transmitted from the "umbral eye" lowers the threshold to conscious perception of the cortical engram.  This engram image is thus referenced to, but is not retrograde in the other eye.

  DEFAULT  views   here present  the following perceptions : 

 here , closed lit lids "Umbral view ', status  enabling  stochastic resonance effects 



 here, total occlusion. 

 DEFAULT here presents  visual noise.  This black-grounded polar-array template.  David Mackay, 1977, referred to this as “Spatial Visual Noise.”


Engram    perceptions in   conditions   III,  V   and  VI.



Protocol Six      6.  " Inter-ocular Transfer  " with Asymmetric Ocular Inputs        


The Stochastic noise transmitted from the " Umbral eye " lowers the threshold to conscious perception of the cortical engram , this engram  image is  thus referenced- to,  but is not retrograde   into  the other  eye."                            




Lehmkuhle and Fox [(1976)  had reported that' interocular transfer (IOT)" of a translational- motion- aftereffect   was greater if the non-adapted eye viewed an equiluminant field (Step V )   than if it viewed a dark field.  (Step  VI ) "   


The engram motion-memory replicates the  vector of the stimulus , not in  the reverse direction as perpetuated  in the  widely studied " M.A.E.'


                                                                                     
STEPS 


I. This protocol  begins  with both eyes in the umbral ☹ status (I).


II. The ENGRAM is then induced monocularly, via an open right eye (II).


III. Verified briefly in umbral-status, while the fellow left eye remains fully occluded throughout this process (III).


IV. On full occlusion of both eyes (IV) the engram perception is briefly absent.


V. When umbral ☹ status is then promptly conferred upon the left eye, the engram is sustained (V). It appears referable only to this left eye; while the right adapted eye remains fully occluded and signals only its own black-grounded polar-array template. [ David Mackay, 1977, referred to this as “Spatial Visual Noise.”] The umbral status is equivalent to the introduction or inherent stochastic noise.


VI. The engram perception is obviated with full occlusion of both eyes, as in IV.


VII. This engram is however visually-recoverable in umbral views, if sought within its 120-second perceptual-longevity limit (VI). Refer back to Protocol One, Step 3.


VIII. Exposing both eyes to the light erases the perception of the engram (VII). Refer back to Protocol Two, Disruption of an Explicit Engram by Intervening Stimuli).


IX. Neither a reverting to umbral ☹ status of both eyes (VIII) nor a total occlusion (IX) restores perception of the engram.


                             ***************************************


The Umbral Status is equivalent to the introduction of noise, " a .. counterintuitive phenomenon in which noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli."  Stochastic Resonance:"  Perez CA, 2007.
 
" Each eye may exert gain control on the other eye's signals in proportion to the contrast energy of its own input, and additionally exerts gain- control on the other eye's gain- control ." Ding J, Sperling G. 2006 jding@uci.edu ( Stale-mate?)
   
(See also Essay  XVII a  )  "The global percepts with closed lids and dichoptic diffuse light: Adaptive Transients :  Filamentary Flashes and Stable Dots;"  as noted 2000. 
                   
CONCLUSION  The Stochastic noise transmitted from the " Umbral eye " lowers the threshold to conscious perception of the cortical engram , this  image is  referenced to, but  is  not  " in  the other  eye" .: the cortical engram  is registered with the visual noise arising  from the " non-adapted"  non-instructed  eye , the   Default Eye . 


I. This protocol commences with both eyes in the umbral status (I).


II. The DVE is then induced monocularly, via an open right eye (II).


III. Verified briefly in umbral-status, while the fellow left eye remains fully occluded throughout this process (III).


IV. On full occlusion of both eyes (IV) the engram perception is briefly absent.


V. When umbral status is then promptly conferred upon the left eye, the engram is sustained (V).  It appears referable only to this left eye, while the right-adapted eye remains fully occluded and signals only its own black-grounded polar-array template.  (MacKay and Hammond, 1977, referred to this as "spatial visual noise.")  The umbral status is equivalent to the introduction or inherent stochastic noise.


VI. The engram perception is obviated with full occlusion of both eyes, again, as in IV.
VII. This engram is however visually-recoverable in umbral views, if sought within its 120-second perceptual-longevity limit (VI).  Refer back to Protocol One, Step 3.


VIII. Exposing both eyes to the light erases the perception of the engram (VII).  Refer back to Protocol Two, Disruption of an Explicit Engram by Intervening Stimuli.


IX. Neither a reverting to umbral status of both eyes (VIII) nor a total occlusion (IX) restores perception of the engram.


STOCHASTIC RESONANCE


Lehmkuhle and Fox, 1976, reported that "interocular transfer (IOT) of a translational motion after-effect was greater if the non-adapting eye viewed an equiluminant field than if it viewed a dark field."

Complete Interocular Transfer of Motion Adaptation, Effects on Motion Coherence Thresholds. Raymond, 1993

"We conclude that the type of occlusion used for measuring IOT ... is important only when visible contours in the non-adapting eye contribute to the adapting process." Timney et al,1996


The umbral status is equivalent to the introduction of noise, a "counterintuitive phenomenon in which noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli" (Perez et al, 2007);.
"Each eye may exert gain control on the other eye's signals in proportion to the contrast energy of its own input, and additionally exerts gain-control on the other eye's gain-control." (Ding and Sperling, 2006)  Stalemate?
"It is well established that motion after-effects (MAE) can show inter-ocular transfer (IOT); that is, motion adaptation in one eye can give a MAE in the other eye" (Tao et al, 2003).
  Therefore, stochastic noise transmitted from the umbral eye lowers the threshold to conscious perception of the cortical engram, thus referenced to, but not in the other eye.


                                        *********************************
Protocol Seven
Optic Flow and the Motion Engrams
Streaming and Smearing of Texture


Motion Streaks Provide a Spatial Code for Motion Direction:  "Spatial signals for motion direction exist in the human visual system for feature speeds above about 1 feature width per 100 ms." (Geisler, 1999)


June 27, 2006:  Solivitur ambulando?  On walking along a coarse gravel path, its texture is equivalent to a grating of contrast ~30% and intervals exceeding an inch.  This surface is viewed with a fixed gaze on an outstretched finger on vertical down-gaze; while keeping a smooth pace of about one meter/sec for 15 seconds, the surface is seen as down-streaming.


On walking backwards with a normal front-gaze, the optic flow appears convergent.  On walking backwards in down-gaze, the surface of the path appears to be up-streaming, as then appears in the engram.  Then in smooth pursuit of this engram by chin elevation with closed eyes, the apparent motion ceases for some seconds then resumes its upward motion (as was seen in Protocol Three.)


Circling beneath a leafy tree, Wednesday, June 21, 2006, with 10 seconds of free viewing and with confluent head motions made from a down to upward gaze.  On eye closure, the engram images seem sparse and noisy with respect to local motions of these large areas.  With large receptive fields for optic flow detection in humans, "sensitivity for radial, circular and translational motion is increased with stimulus area at a rate predicted by an "ideal integrator" in humans." (Burr et al, 1998)


A theory of texture discrimination incorporating a roving local sampling window allows the visual system to derive an estimate of the ensemble statistics over the window from any particular texture image, without the need to present multiple samples for evaluation. (Tyler, 2004)


"In honey bees, manipulation of the visual texture (in wind tunnels) revealed that headwind is compensated almost fully even when the optic flow cues are very sparse and subtle demonstrating the robustness of this visual flight control system." (Barron and Srinivasan, 2005)


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                                                                   PART TWO


Natural Scenes, with Autonomous Mnemonic Registration


    "Ecologically Valid Stimuli"


Tulving and Schacter, 1990, in their Persistent Representation System, note motion memory as "an activity beyond perceptual processes," which processes they suggest "evolved to perform only ecologically valid computations."


"The use of natural stimuli is vital for our understanding of sensory processing." (Dan et al, 2005)


The following anecdotal examples illustrate the broad range of the confluent motions and dynamic events which may be captured autonomously as engrams, and seen then as autonomous, reiterating recursions.


1)  Vortices with Countable Rotations.  The particles or bubbles on stirred coffee can act as markers.  The colorful meteorological graphics on weather TV may also replicate well as achromatic engrams.


2)  Aquarium Displays.  With relatively dark-adapted observers,  aquatic dynamics are faithfully rendered in umbral viewing.  These venues offer ideal conditions for engram capture, presenting confluent streamlined flows, particulate diffusions of fine luminous particles in high contrast, and a wide range of organic biological activities.


3)  Conflagrations.  A refinery stack ablaze: As this engram recycles, the columnar uprising, the vertical component, may outlast the perceptions of the peripheral lateral turbulences, perceptually progressing to a motion-averaging effect.  "Local speeds are averaged, independent of direction, to derive a global speed estimate ... evidence for local averaging within, but not across two speed ranges.  This finding established the existence of at least two independent speed-tuned systems in the range of speeds tested." (Burr et al, 1998)


4)  Counter-flowing?  Castet and Morgan, 1996, state "plaid motions initiate motor responses made by summing of two orthogonal moving gratings."  Viewing crisscross palm fronds in asymmetric motion the perception is not one of summation.  Can plaid motions exist in nature?  Bloomberg's streaming text:  three channels, two speeds, maintained in engram; see TV.  Linear streams are distinguished in engrams after the viewing of vehicular traffic patterns.  With transparent spheres the apparent counter-flow of the nearer and further hemisphere of rotating Buckey balls, distinguished in engrams, a counter-streaming is perceived un-summed.  The chiralities in axial views reverse when observed in up or in downward gaze at the pole of a rotating item.


Angular Velocity:  "The perceived angular velocity of an ellipse undergoing a constant rate of rotation will vary as its aspect ratio is changed." (Caplovitz et al, 2006)


The view of transparent spheres is as of rotating ellipses.  Taraxacum:  Dandelion seed-heads are 2.5 cm in diameter; the seeds are hexagonally distributed over the sphere and dispersed at 3–4 mm intervals.  With each rotation executed in four seconds, the dark seed-dots are discerned to move coherently with angular velocities dependent upon their tangent to the proximate views of elliptical sectors, the poles representing singularities, axial pivot points.


5)  Screen-Saver Designs.  Small, high-contrast particulates in loomings or zoomings simulating optic flows in 3D are accurately portrayed thereafter in engram; mechanical or pendular oscillations do not prove effective.  (Not ecologically valid computations?)


6)  Shifting Landscapes; Optic Flows and Panoramic Views.  "Cells selective for differential motion can rapidly flag moving objects, and even segregate multiple moving objects." (Olveczky et al, 2003)


7)  Vehicular Travel.  July 17, 2005:  For a passenger, travel through spectacularly diverse terrain provides semantic and dynamic complexity with layered and intersecting contours, distant horizons and speed-blurred images as lines of fence posts approach with increasing angular velocities.  As the varied contours of natural landscapes and structures occlude or unfold in parallax, sequences of the serial vistas of rolling intersecting landscapes are observed through sunglasses.


     Then with closed, lit lids, each dynamic scene can replay as an engram, with high fidelity to the apparent relative motions.  Blake et al, 2003, offer a "counter-intuitive finding ... that high contrast detracts from motion perception."  The use of the dark sunglasses evidently contributed to the above impressively integrated effect.  The larger the receptive field of a sensor, the better for motion detection (and also for the Kanizsa effect, which is enhanced at low luminances.)


      One mode "produces invariant representations of the motion flow fields produced by global in-plane motion of an object; above in-plane rotational motion, looming versus receding of the object." (Rolls and Deco, 2004)  These dynamics are present in stereoscopic online experiences, 1 to7 above, and are witnessed in parity in the off-line, recursive, achromatic engrams.


8) Seeing Biological Motion.  "Information is summed over extended temporal intervals of up to three seconds by mechanisms that analyze biological motion and adapt to the nature of the stimulus." (Neri, Morrone and Burr, 1998)
  Primitive survival required the sensing of local scenes and activities, and retention/persistence of these data.  Not surprisingly, "the spatial properties of motion sensitive cells (human) match to the statistical properties of natural scenes … velocity peaks … ranging from 0.25 to 5.66 c/deg." (Brady, Bex and Fredericksen, 1997)
  Hyvarinen and Hoyer, 2001, describe "a highly parsimonious model whereby the properties of the visual cortex are adapted to the characteristics of the natural input."


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                               "MOTION  after effects ,and  pictorial  MEMORIES."


      Much attention has been devoted over the years to the subjective, yet non-informative reset phenomena of the illusory  MAE.  It is remarkable that available literature offers so few indications of these subjective, semantic, cogent   Recursive Engrams, though apparently these  recursive engrams were experienced and well described in 1982  by Miller and Peacock,   who then  wrote   "Eidetic imagery appears to be a long-lasting, percept-like experience which varies considerably in clarity and definition; its duration is critically dependent on level of illumination and its contents are easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli." 


    Replays of the phenomenal mechanical MAE have been verified by fMRI (Bouman and van de Grind, 2004).  The subjective off-line informational  Engrams  await similar objective validation.

          
   Motion-After-Effects   vis-à-vis   Recursive Dynamic Visual   Engrams   


*"Adaptation to motion produces a motion aftereffect..  where illusory, oppositely-directed motion is  perceived ....when viewing a stationary image."


                                              Watamaniuk SN, Heinen SJ.2007 scott.watamaniuk@wright.edu


*The Recursive   Dynamic  Engram;    these  images  are not  sustained to perception when viewing  areas of the cognitive field   occupied by exogenic on-line mages.  IXP 

   Motion-After-Effects     
    MAE   are not seen in the dark : but are  revealed  by prompt confrontation with a "static or dynamic noise pattern " and  only sustained to recognition in areas of an articulated field occupied by exogenic veridical on-line images ( Engrams  also are visible in the dark ).   
      MAE reportedly reverses the prior  trajectories, angular velocities and streaming of linear, radial or spiral motions  of the earlier  motile  inputs.  The MAE reported  in 1911 by Wohlgemuth  noted its extended longevity in darkness. " Static and dynamic testing has confirmed this and other well-known MAE effects, with explicit longevities for up to 30 seconds (van de Grind et al, 2004), and longevity of 40 seconds with fMRI"..
     
Recursive Dynamic Visual   Engrams
  These  dynamics differ significantly from the MAE dynamics.  Unlike the MAE choreographies, only the original  trajectories  appear in the engrams
Whereas the MAE initiation- process has been   considered an "adaptation", an  appropriate term for the engrams is   a "capture" or "acquisition. These captured primary engrams are covert- images in the sense that they become explicitly visible only with closed, illuminated eyes after a four-second delay ,  and then may iterate with visibly declining amplitude for up to 120 seconds. 
 These continuum fields with confluent motion and embedded coherent structures are replicated as forward-going, achromatic and recursive images.  "In addition to providing a possible explanation and neural correlate of a visual aftereffect ... rebounding activity may provide new insight into the dynamics of early visual processing." (X. Huang et al, 2008)
      Verstraten and Ashida, 2005,stated  that "the visual system dynamically calibrates its internal bias ... using a recent percept....this form of positive bias, or priming, is created in an automatic fashion."     The autonomous  acquisition of semantic engrams is   considered fundamentally a banking-of-information in a short- or long-term deposit, rather than a "priming" process.       .
       Engram images  are not sustained to perception in areas of the cognitive field occupied by exogenic veridical on-line mages.  A visual field, viewed with by half closed eyelids, enables perception of the external views in the lower field, while the motion-memory packages persist in the upper field.
    These Engram visual manifestations, witnessed subjectively  and logged since 2001, have proven replicable and  consistent with current theories on human visual-memory acquisition-cum-learning,.   Memory-and-navigation systems  are reported in many other animal species including primates, rodents, birds, insects and cephalopods.  The semantic engrams in man might now also be validated by fMRI.  Meanwhile, the opponency reset MAE phenomena "remains questionably of fundamental significance ... and have enjoyed considerable and perhaps unwarranted attention."   Raymond, 1993




EFFECTIVE  CONFLUENT INPUTS


   *   Engrams can be generated during casual  and brief viewings of dynamic scenes such as rolling credits or tickertape on a TV screen, by the flow of traffic, by watching a marching band, or while stirring coffee.  After viewing such a scene for three seconds, or for up to 30-second periods, those features are then recognizable in the persistent motile images.  Multiple motions are replicated with dynamic fidelity, though rendered achromatic.
        A robust engram as brief as five seconds may then recycle, with amplitude attenuations, for up to 120 seconds, to reach a "fuzzy end-point." The stochastic noise transmitted from the "umbral eyes" lowers the threshold for conscious perception of cortical engrams.  The Engrams   longevities apparently exceed those reported  of the MAE.   


OSCILLATORY  INPUTS
  ,   Wohlgemuth, 1911, stated "short-period oscillatory motions do not excite MAE." Confluent, natural motions favor initiation of the engram ,   
 Mechanical oscillations are not replicated as engrams; such inputs to this system may cancel out, due to low sampling rates and to motion averaging.
Lappin et al, 2002"Motion produces visually coherent changes in image structure, but stationary contrast oscillation does not."