Visual Memory Research
The Genesis of Mnemonic Visual Systems 
Recurrent Dynamics in Excitable Media

Topic B5: The Lexical Engrams


THESIS   STATEMENT       Reading  is an Engram- Dependent  Skill . 


Engram:  An autonomous  memory- trace  of a congruent  event, or of one  page of text.
Recursive Engrams  prove  accessible  for autonomous processing,  and consolidations.        

Textures:  Extended  fields include  textiles, wall papers, microscopic histology. The print  on this present page  viewed in dim light, might appear as texture.

Textons:  "The term  visual-texton  designates  the  perceptually- separable elements  as viewed in  any textured  patterned field." (Julesz  B  1981)   Dimensions of textons vary  within one field of  any arbitrary scene, and  in a printed text.  

Lexors:  Autonomous cellular agents.  These sensors, the  lexical  detectors , operate in synchronized temporal  circuits, which are also spatially-concentric.

 *******************************************************************

THESIS I :
 SEMANTIC   VISUAL  ENGRAMS:

Rendered  Explicit  in  their  off-line - Verbatim  Recursions.   IXP.  2000

 *******************************************************************

THESIS II:  i  ON-LINE  READING: Necessitates  Oculomotions or head-motions.

The  Neuro-Mechanics  of  Saccadic  on-line Reading.   As gaze is shifted , the  foveal- lexors 
 are first  directed  right-ward  >>  >> by  the  oculomotor  saccades  across  the  stable-  page of  text,    and  are  then directed  <<< leftwards  by the  return  oculomotor saccade,  en- route  back to the next  line  of  the stationary print . 
                      
      ii :  However :  during the   "OFF-LINE   LEXICATIONS ", oculomotion  is absent.

When witnessing the  off-line  Lexication of  an  embedded  Engram –text, the  letters- and-  lines slip  steadily   left-wards  <<<  behind a cortical polar   fixation:  text   streaming  with no saccadic   fixational regressions  .      As  is  experienced  in condition III above,  focal  gaze is not shifted. 

*******************************************************************

THESIS III:  The  LEXICATIONS off-line  are ACCELERATED : exceeding  1,000 WPM:  

Reading  processes  off – LINE  are  conducted  without  Oculomotor Saccades;  WPM rates thus  equal  the   on-line  RSVP  rate  which  is  also  a   Non-saccadic  Reading-  mode.

The  "Con-solidations  or Re-views "  off-line  are also   conducted  by  three , concentric actively -  functioning  lexor systems,   now  undelayed by oculomotor saccades:  [cf. the RSVP  mode]     
:    : 

*******************************************************************

THESIS IV:  The   SHIFTING of   " Cortical  MAPS"
                      Engram- maps thus obtain  alignments  with  the fixed   Polar- Axial  View-point    


     CYCLOPEAN – FUNCTIONS: 2009   " The foveal confluence in human visual cortex."
                                    Schira MM, Tyler CW, Breakspear M, Spehar B.

    The  dynamics  of  READING - ON-LINE,  vs.  the " off-line LEXICATION- DYNAMICS".

When  fluently - reading Western Texts on-line, the  fixations  are shifted to the right  by two short saccades and one long return  saccade to the left  across a stationary text.

However, when  witnessing  the off-line  texts,  the  letters  and  lines in the cortical   engram – texts are  themselves shifted - leftwards  behind the stationary  cortical- lexors. Meanwhile, the body of the  engram  ascends  slowly.  These mechanics, as  observed  since 2000  in  Condition III, are  apparent in "off-line  lexication." (see Topic B5)  
  
The  slow  up - drifting  and  leftward - rotation of  a lexical Engram  while undergoing scrutiny  off-line thus enables  the  continued  operation  of the  recursive  non- saccadic lexication.

Haydn  N. 2005   "We analyze a skew integrable map defined 
on a cylinder that models a shear flow". This may relate to the  above subjective -findings.

*******************************************************************

THESIS   V: The   Archived,  Compacted  Multiple-  Engrams  " ACME " 
         
  Multiple lexical engrams are retained  intact, but   minified : (Henon maps?)


  Literacy is  attained by :  
 
  * Integrating  of  visual information from successive fixations .  [ Jonides J.  1982  ]           


  *  Neuronal networks for induced 40 Hz. rhythms   [ Jefferys  J  1996 ]            .                                            
 
 * Sleep,   off-line memory- reprocessing  [Stickgold R, 2001] 


 ♦ Memory Consolidation.  in  unsupervised periods during  sleep , and in  high density storage ,     verbatim,  of orthographic  memory. IXP 2000
 
 *   Archived  Compacted  Multiple – Engram   format ,  ACME,.  IXP  2003                                  

*******************************************************************

THESIS VI:  The  ACTIVE  "DEFAULT -  BRAIN".
             
                  AUTONOMOUS – PROCESSING   in   the  DEFAULT -  STATES :                                                      
                      "  The default-mode functional connectivity of the brain 
             correlates with  working-memory performances  "  Esposito F, 2009. 
 
   Awake or Asleep :  On-line  or off-line,  the bio-ergonomics of  learning,  of memory and  of   recall- mechanisms depend  largely upon autonomous  engrams,  and  upon the  "lexor circuitry"'... which is  active in vigilance   and also the  during non- REM  SW Sleep  phases."

"Sleep-dependent memory consolidation,  and re-consolidations..."Stickgold R, Walker MP  2007. 

"Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep .  Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory- consolidation occur also during waking state." Axmacher N,  2008.  

Routine typographic  or  editing-corrections  of a text  made deliberately  on-line have occasionally  been   witnessed  off-line  as  replicated in some  engrams:   These  "over-night , unsupervised consolidations " appeared  to be conducted  at  accelerated speeds (  B5  <>10 .0 ),  and  recently re-confirmed;  Sept 2010 . IXP  
                
" Consciousness  is  the spot-light  !   or a  little – candle  on the big-  Cake ?"
                       
 *******************************************************************

Pelli and Tillman  in  2007  "  three  scalar- contributions  to  reading-rates ,  attributable to  the  discernments   of  the Letters as  symbols , to   the Words  as semantic,  and  to  Phrases  as syntactic." 

They  found  that " Each reading process always contributes the same number of words per minute .... accomplished by a complex process that contains three functionally distinct and separately modifiable parts "    adding that .."  finding that these contributions to reading rate are additive is startling."  

However ,  the three  lexors,  which  function as  captors , conservators and couriers of  three  texton- magnitudes , appear  to  operate  concentrically , simultaneously,  and  congruently;  as may be witnessed in the   engrams   during  "  off-line  lexications".

"Lexors": these are   Scalar - agents  of   three magnitudes  which  operate jointly  on-line 
 to  en capsulate the   engram- texts : the  lexor dimensions   may appear as   explicit  in  off- line  consolidations in limbo (see Thesis VII, below)              
                          
THESIS VII: Three  SCALAR-  LEXORS  operate  in   SYNCHRONY .

On  first  confronting  a  document the  full extent of  visible text , paged  or screen ,  is  promptly  captured  as a  gist... a gestalt . As scanning progresses  three  concentric  afferent- agents   operate  simultaneously , and  with  congruent  synchronized  summations ,  function as a  triumvirate.

Thus the sequential  purviews  of  the  circular  lexor’s  one- degree domain,   of  the  five-degree  circular  domain , and  those  of   the  Linear- Lexor  with a  three-by ten- degree  horizontal-  purview,   jointly  attain  completions  of the gestating- engrams. 
 
The  Engram Reading  Mode apparently  functions  with these  synchronous, concentric three- scalar  lexor  systems.    Each gestating  Engram is  up-dated  (re-mapped ) with each new fixation, up  until the  closure of that  on-line, perceptible visual  event.

Teichert 2007:    notes  "  the "scale-invariance of receptive- field- properties in primary visual cortex ..commenting  that .. ..the   neural- mechanisms underlying these abilities are still poorly understood."   
               
"The fractal- geometry of life."  see  Losa GA   2009.  
                                             
These delegated  afferent  functions,  implicit in vigilance on-line reading , may be  rendered  explicit  in  the  off-line  processing    As  witnessed in Condition (III) above,  the  lp*  spontaneous engrams  which   emerge briefly  during  awakening –arousals  ( as  load and recency dependent ) are  at times  focally  legible, verbatim et literatim.                   

 
THESIS   VIII   ii )  The   CONCENTRIC   FUNCTIONINGS   of  the  SCALAR  LEXORS:

These  sensory-lexors  with  neural  circuits  of the  three -  scalar-  magnitudes  operate simultaneously  during  normal fluent-  reading activities .


Condition III above:    Two  concentric  circular - lexors have domains  of a  one- or of  a  five  degree  subtenses ,  while  that  of  the  Linear  Lexor's  horizon  is   a  three  by  ten- degree subtense. 

Textual details  are  furnished  by these three  concentric  scalar lexors  with  their  specific angular- subtenses  matched to the  clusters  of  letters, words or phrases: L, W, P . Pelli  . ( The  granular  textons of   B Julesz  1980 .)     


Janus  Starzyx   .describes ".  four -level hierarchical structure in relation to the  granularity of the  textons,  as   exemplified in  normal  reading  activities."


Legge G  2007  when  using  a   flash -card ( "short  lines"  of text on four single- spaced  lines) demonstrated  those   lexical  discernments  which are  obtained thus   in the field- aperture  of the five-degree  circular –lexor  sensor.   

"The fractal- geometry of life."  see  Losa GA   2009.
                                             
 *******************************************************************

THESIS  IX:  TRIGGERS:  the   CEREBRAL - CONCATENATIONS.
                                          
Richard Semon  1904 : " an   Engram ..   is  a stimulus- impression ,  reactivated  by the recurrence of  the prior  conditions. "                
Born J. 2009  "The  access to sleep-dependent mnemonic  consolidation requires memories to be encoded under control of prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry... with the same circuitry .  2011                
Ermentrout B. 2009   "  .Effective connectivity between cells may  arise in the form of   correlations between   noisy input streams   . However, the inputs to real neurons may often be more accurately described as barrages of synaptic noise.    ? 


 IXP   Engrams  can be  triggered  by flicker toggled between  10 to 40 Hz. . Concatenations   


 *******************************************************************

THESIS X:  READING:   LITERACY ,  and   COMPREHENSION.


     Alvarez-Lacalle E,2006  "'Hierarchical structures induce long-range dynamical correlations in written texts  ....  with  presumptive  access  to   surrogate- random- texts  identical to the original text."  ( the "scale-invariance of receptive- field- properties in primary visual cortex)
  IXP. These "'surrogates"  are indeed  witnessed  as  the facsimiled,  verbatim  ENGRAMS,  together  with  off-line  LEXOR  activity  which is   evident  in  some  ACME  archived - displays .
 
    *  Literacy is thus  enabled  by the  archived retention ,verbatim  et literatim,   of texts : evident  in the Tertiary  Engrams  and  by the  early delegation  to  automata  of  many  mnemonic  functions . 
        *Awake or asleep,  the bio-ergonomics of   learning, of  memory and  recall depend  ultimately  upon  autonomous and  recursive neural – functions.
    
   *  ACME     Archived  Compacted  Multiple Engrams     When glimpsed  in  the brief  interludes between sleep- and- wake ( "'in  limbo ") these  Quaternary Engrams may  then  display  views  of  multiple  prior  lexical inputs , witnessed as miniatures  in  displays of "archived  spread-sheets". <>16 Topic   B5.  ..  This is an apparent deviation from the  rule of scale-invariance of  receptive- field- properties.

         The  on-line  fluent-reading  with retention  of semantic   content  is  contingent upon   
     Cognitive Access to the im-perceptible   off-line   Lexical Engrams .                                                                                       
          Memory-traces  generally are  implicit.    Mnemonic  Engrams are not perceptible in the dark,  nor  in  the  presence of  homotopic on-line images :  hence  explicit perceptions  of these  semantic visual  engrams  seem  little  recognized either anecdotally or in the literature. 
       However, these  engrams  may be  rendered  explicit  in  three  state-dependent conditions,
 as here asserted , and as documented since 2000 .   see  the  Prefaces  to follow,  pages  6 to 10. 
           Richard  Semon  in 1904 had  described "engram  reactivation  by the recurrence of  those energetic conditions which had  ruled at the generation of that  engram"...which statement  broadly addressed  the current  issues  of mnemonic entrainment  and  recalls;   elicited  by  triggered oscillations.     The  lexical engrams are found  to  be  subjectively  explicit,   and  to be  archived  verbatim et literatim ...  thus  enabling  Literacy  and Scholarship
      .The   Engram  Reading-Mode   as  here presented  supports and  extends  current theory  on  lexical  processes ,  memory-  consolidations  and recalls  in dormancy  .       

        The  Unsought  Phenomenal  ENGRAMS.

                                 Encountered  as  off-line  Images,  2000- 2011.  
  2000 July 22       Recursive  Lexical- Engrams 
  2000  Oct 16       Autonomous Lexors
  2001  Feb 13      Engrams  as   Triggered by Flicker
  2001  Sept 8       Spatial- Motion- Memory Engrams 
  2003⎯2008          LEXICAL Archives.". Shifting Engram  Spread-sheets"...   

  The  EXPLICIT   RECURSIVE    ENGRAMS                   
    (  from The  AUTONOMOUS  VISUAL BRAIN ;   AVB .  )   
     
      Subjective visual  access to  the Implicit  PRS  of Tulving and Schacter, 1990,   is  obtainable
  as  recursive engrams ,   witnessed  as Explicit   in Conducive State- dependent Conditions       
Recursive  Semantic  Engrams  covertly  serve  Cognition and Literacy,  and may be rendered  explicitly visible  in three state-dependent conditions       During the casual  on-line viewing of dynamic scenes , or  while  reading text , these   incoming visual  patterns are  autonomously packaged as the  discrete  engrams  which  are  maintained with  chronology and  topologies  intact.  Their semantic  contents are  either of textural or  scenic-motions,  or  of graphic –lexical   facsimiles

Prior to the  unsought phenomenal  events of  October 15 and 16  of 2000,  this author was
 not familiar  with Reading  Neuro-mechanics or  related theories.   Since 2000  these phenomena  became  the  major focus in exploration of  the  entoptic ENGRAMS  systems , which evidently   constitute  the substrates  of  literacy and of navigation .                                   
                                  
 *Engrams experienced in the intrinsic cognitive field are anchored by  the  cognitive cyclopean -fovea,  a lynch-pin evident in all mnemonic packets engrams;  and one  in effect also during dream–image  experiences .  " The foveal confluence in human visual cortex." Schira, Tyler, Breakspear and Spehar. 2009.                                    

                                                          Summary

 When  Lexicating  off-line.. there are no  oculomotor  saccades, and   no pages to turn  .
The  visual effect is experienced  as  if  a spiraling  text  is  imprinted upon a  vertical cylinder  which  is in  a continuous levo-rotation  at ~1 cps. ,  and also  attains a  slow vertical  ascent  of -3  degrees subtense per second . This  dynamic  keeps  the lines of the  text  in  alignment with   the  concentric,  autonomous , stationary  sensory  agencies .
 see   Pelli 2007, Agents  and  L.W.and S ]    

RECURSIVE  VISUAL  ENGRAMS

THESIS  :   READING   is  an  ENGRAM –DEPENDENT FUNCTION 

ABSTRACT


         Recursive  Visual   Engrams  are  the  explicit- substrates   of  the  implicit- PRS 
   dual -system   of  Tulving and Schacter , 1990 .    Visually- Explicit-  Engrams  are 
not prominent  in the  literature,  for these  engrams  are  im-perceptible  both  in  darkness 
 and  in the  presence of  homotopic on-line images.      However  the , recursive visual engrams 
 in the Orthographic  and  the  Scenic –Motion systems  may be explicitly  witnessed   off-line
  in  adaptive  state-dependencies. 

Recursive Lexical Engrams are  generated  autonomously  during saccadic reading,  and may thereafter   be witnessed  off-line  in  three  conducive State-dependent Conditions :

 I)  with closed, lit eyes;  in stochastic- resonance : perceptible after a  five- second delay. 

II ) promptly seen  with imposed- flicker toggled   between  8- 40  Hz. and in  bright light               III )  spontaneously  emergent  engrams, witnessed  in  brief  sleep- to-wake arousals. 
 
At times  in  Condition ( III )  these   engrams  are focally–legible , verbatim et literatim , and may   then  equal  the  on-line  RSVP reading – rates,   for  both  these  processes are non-saccadic .  


The  Dynamic Visual Engrams (see Topic C7)  are acquired autonomously while  viewing  natural  fluid-flows :  flocks of birds in flight, stirred coffee,  vehicular traffic , falling snow-flakes and  also  the streaming  texts on  ticker-tape.    Complex  motions and vortices  are  retained  in tempero-spatial- parity with their input  sources , evident only  in Condition ( I ) above .    
                                 
The  Engram  Reading-Mode   as  here presented  contributes  to  current theories on  lexical  processing ,  memory  consolidation and the  perceptible  engram   recursions  –  triggered or spontaneous.  A successful  pre-articulate – infants'   reading- program  evidently is  reliant upon   multi-modal semantic  inputs,  both  voiced and gestural,  when  accompanying  a displayed trigram,  and upon  subsequent cognitive access to  the  autonomously  cerebrally  -imprinted  lexical visual  Engrams.  (see Robert Titzer  and  D.L. Share 2008 on intuitive learning).  

************************************************************************                          

The   KEY  TERMS   and  CONCEPTS   in  Part two,  AVB.

 Engrams  :" off- line  memory –traces".     Richard Semon  in 2004 defined  the engram
 as " a  stimulus impression... which could be reactivated by the recurrence of' the  energetic conditions which ruled at the generation of the engram. ( see  Schacter, D.L.1982 )
   In 1968  Wm. Penfield  had published"  Engrams in the human brain.  Mechanisms of memory." 

Textons:   Julesz  B  1981  . " The term  visual-texton  designates  the  perceptually- separable elements  as  viewed in  any textured  patterned field. "   Dimensions of textons  vary  within one visual  field : as  in any arbitrary  natural  scene,   or  complex geometric  display,  and  in  texts .  

The term texton  is  in common  use,   lexor apparently is a  neologism.


Lexors:  Witnessed  in  Condition III above  as active agents  of one or  of   five-  degree diameters,   and  as a horizontal lexor of three  by ten  degree -  subtenses , these  receptive- fields  match the ratios  of   Dehaene's "  hierarchical  neural- detectors ".  Losa GA   2009. " The fractal geometry of life supposes ' Conceptual  Scaling Windows '... in which the relationship between the scale of observation , and the measured size or length of the object, can be established . "                       

While  reading – on- line  these  lexor - functions  are implicit- scalar-  operators  in  a  putative reading - hierarchy : see  Pelli , Legge  and many  other authors.  
In  the  off-line  lexication-  conditions  however  these  scalar  lexors  may be  witnessed  explicitly in " status  limbo ".   see  (III)  above.  In  the Engram  Reading   paradigm,   the three scalar  lexor are deemed  co-temporaneous  synchronized- and - spatially-concentric   scalar-  operators      

Born J 2011  
"access to sleep-dependent consolidation  requires memories to be encoded under control of prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry " with the same circuitry controlling  the subsequent- consolidation during sleep."  - Diekelmann S, Born J.     .
 
Limbo : This term  as  here  used  connotes " the   Hypnopompic state  : the  transitional – mentation   experienced - in the border - land   between- sleep- and- wake .   With closed, lit lids  an  engram then may  appear  in stochastic resonance . with  focal legibility;  recency and load- dependent;   and  with    indications   of  nocturnal - consolidation processing : verbatim et literatim .      


Scalar Parity:  The  visual- angle subtenses of   engram – textons   match  the input-  sources . (Exceptional is the case of the archived , minified lexical engrams,  which  are diminished in area by an order of magnitude. (   ACME : Archived  Compacted  Multiple Engrams  which  serve  memory-  consolidation and LTM  recall . )                                                                                 

Extraneous  Images :   Engrams are im-perceptible both  in the dark and   in the  presence of  homotopic on-line images.   In up-gaze   with half- closed lids  however,   a lexical  Engram may be  vignetted in the upper field while  the environment  remains  perceptible  below.    The  off-line engram perceptions  are thus  perceptible   simultaneously  with a  hetero-topic  subjacent  On-line  view   . see  also  Topic C7 , protocol  Five,   Motion- memory  Engrams.      

READING  is  an  ENGRAM –DEPENDENT   FUNCTION

The subjective manifestations of  recursive semantic engrams  are here  attributed  solely  to the  activities  in the  neocortex;   whereas   mutual  reciprocations  and the  roles  of the hippocampus  in memory- storage and retrievals  are  detectable  by electroencephalography.

    
The recursive  lexical engrams here characterized  were  acquired while routinely  reading Times Roman pt 12  print layout , 75%  at 50 cms  


Seen while awakening "in status limbo",  findings  of lexical activity  are   consistent with  the  generally- suspected   off-line  consolidations..   Caveat  :  The chances  for encountering  spontaneous - engrams   in a  brief - awakening – period  ( of  about  ten  seconds  ) are  largely  contingent upon the  hours  spent  reading  texts the previous  day.

                                 
Subjective  findings  since October  2000.   Levo- Rotations  and   Upward  – drifting   of  Lexical  Engrams   are  perceptible  during the accelerated   off-line  Lexications.  

The  familiar  RSVP  protocol  demonstrates  a non-saccadic   reading mode.  This  is the  mode  also  witnessed explicitly " off-line  in  limbo ",  for the   Engram –texts  rotate and  shift  vertically  behind the static,  immobile cortical  Lexors .   

Slow spin and  up- drifting  of the  intact  texts, as  witnessed in Condition III  above,   enables a continuous lexication as the  static- lexors discern  the  streaming text,   and  attain continuous cognitive - reading  with no  saccadic  regressions .       


Stringer SM,  2004 . Dissipative  Dynamical  Systems . MAPS  .." Continuous attractor neural networks. operate with.. localized packets  ..Such a network could, by learning, self-organize to enable the packets in each space to be moved continuously in that space by idiothetic (motion) inputs. "
  

Since  neither Retinal  nor  Cortical  images  can  be  scanned  foveally- by- oculomotion, it  is the  informational  " MAPS"  themselves  which thus  may   shift  , enabling  the   off-line lexicational-  activities which are  observed  . IXP.   B5 <>9  
                              
Off-line ....  no pages to turn :    no  Oculomotor  Saccades.

Off-line, a   vertical  scroll ... an endless  up- winding  flow,  as in  the  RSVP mode   


***************************************************************************
                                 
                                   The   Subjective  Findings  since October  2002: 
                        Levo- Rotations  and   Upward  – drifting   of  Lexical  Engrams  
                                 are  perceptible  during  off-line  "consolidatory"  Lexications
             
*  Engram  Texts  may be witnessed   during  the  "  off-line   LEXICATIONS ".  
 If  texts  were   imprinted on a vertical  conceptual- cylinder which is in a levo-rotation  ,  and  which  attains a vertical  ascent  of 2- degrees subtense per second , this  spiral  delivery track  could  feed the now- stationary focal lexors : ( the  three concentric, autonomous ,  sensor- agents : the  foveola of one degree  , the parafoveal  of  5 degrees ,  and the  gist  of  10 degrees:  respectively  the Letters,  the Words, the Phrases .)

*   Up drifting and rotation of  the  cortical  Engram itself  thus  enables  the continuous operations  of the  three, overlapping functioning lexors in streaming  texts.  This finding is perhaps consistent with a statement by N.  Haydn  2005  -  "analyzing a skew integrable map defined on a cylinder that models a shear flow."

The subjective manifestations  of  explicit  Lexical  Engrams, of  Textons  and  Lexors  prove supportive  of current  theories  on   reading skills and on  literacy .
   The  overt subjective   manifestations of  recursive semantic engrams  are  here attributed  solely
 to the  activities  in  the neocortex ; while  the  reciprocating  roles  of the hippocampus  in memory  storage and its  retrieval  are  polymodal ,  and in  locations  elsewhere  as  detectable  by electroencephalography.       
                                                      
 Other TECHNOLOGY .   Sensor- Chip Compensation: "One of the most advanced camera  technologies is a system that actually moves the camera’s sensor- chip in a manner that counteracts  a hand-held - camera’s movement. "
  
  (All sighted and ambulatory- species accomplish this same  feat by making 
     oculomotor and vestibular adjustments  for the retinal – intakes.  IXP ) 

************************************************************************

                                           ENTOPTIC   LANDMARKS   

   1968 .     Entoptic Visualizations  and Impletion of the  Blind Spots.   IXP .                                                                          
                          Ida Pearce MD , Arch Ophthal⎯Vol 79, May 1968
  Abstract 
The blind spot of Mariotte can be visible subjectively for as long as 15 seconds at low luminances, and also in the dark.  When the adaptation of any part of the visual system is unmatched to the stimulus, either a dark disc scotoma appears on the lit field, or a bright disc scotoma appears on a dark field.  Often there is a border contrast phenomenon thought to be indicative of lateral inductance in the cortical fourth order neurons.  The scotoma is most slowly filled up at low luminances, and is not perceptible with bright fields unless these have been preceded by prolonged dark adaptation.  The initial impletion depends upon the contralateral retina; final "matching" impletion may be made by the complex cells, fifth order, or higher, on signals from the ipsilateral retina, and at the same time suppression of the contra lateral "mismatching" signals.

2000.     Entoptic Visualization of  Visual  Engrams and Activities  .   IXP..  
      Subjective access  to the   Explicit  Substrates of the Implicit PRS  of Tulving and Schacter, 1990,  is   obtainable  in three  conducive state- dependent conditions
       
   Recursive Semantic  Engrams  covertly  serve  Cognition and Literacy,  and may be rendered  explicitly visible  in three state-dependent conditions   During the casual  on-line viewing of dynamic scenes , or  while  reading text , these   incoming visual  patterns are  autonomously packaged as the  discrete  engrams ,  which  are  maintained with  chronology and  topologies  intact.   Their semantic  contents are  either of textural or  scenic-motions,  or are  graphic –lexical   facsimiles
 The ENGRAM   READING Mode as   here  presented  relates to current theories  on-line lexical  processing  and   memory  consolidation,   and identifies autonomous  recall- triggers .   The successful   Robert Titzer  reading- program    for  pre-articulate - infants   is reliant upon  multi-modal semantic  inputs , both  voiced and gestural,   and upon innate  cognitive access to  the  autonomously –generated   lexical visual  Engrams which  bear  the  inculcate orthographic symbols .

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

How  psychic- projection  of  the on –line   cerebral-perceptions  are  then  reflected  back  into  the  currently-experienced-environment  ... remains  beyond  conjecture .  IXP 

                                                   ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
                                                                            

The  RECURSIVE  LEXICAL   ENGRAMS:
. .                 
  AUTONOMY,  FIDELITY  &   LONGEVITES.


The following  brief  PREFACES precede  the  MAIN  TEXT
                  
1)      CATEGORICAL   DISTINCTIONS  of  Entopic Images .     


2)      ICONIC  MEMORIES:  as    Implicit  or  Explicit ?              


3 )    ENGRAMS  :  referenced   per se .  since  1904.                         


4)     MNEMONIC   STORAGE  :  ASSUMPTIONS.                


5 )    INTER- DISCIPLINARY   TERMINOLOGIES   Your "Chunks"   my " Engrams "?  


6 )     MNEMONIC - RESEARCH :    Methods .                           


7)     EXACT- SUBJECTIVISM : Advocates .


                                                                            
       8 )       DEFAULT    NETWORKS    ( including   central pattern generators;  CPGs). 


   ******************************************************************************* 
                              
  CONTENTS  of  the  MAIN   TEXT.
                                           Chapters  are  here   listed   as   <>1.0    to   <>20   


            <>1.0      The    ENCOUNTERS  which initiated  this "Lexical Persistence" study .                                          


<>2        In the  standard   SELECTED  TEXT of   Times  Roman pt 12 ,75%
             at   40 cms ,  the   Visual  Spans exceed 20 ciphers  in  Fluent  Reading.    


<>3                  ANGULAR  DIMENSION of the  ENGRAMS :   
              30 degrees subtense  , embraced by entoptically visible retinal vascular arcades                                                
                 when  Vasculatures  and the ENGRAMS  are  simultaneously perceptible .           


<>4      AUTOMATA  :   The LEXORS '  DIMENSIONS and ACTIVITIES .                                                                                                                                                          .                           The cursive automaton‘s subtense  of a  one degree lexor 
                                    matches  the 330 micron of  a  foveal  texton  


<>5        ENGRAMS , with   SCALAR   PARITY  and   LEGIBILITY  :                             
             
                  Performances in the Vigilant READING    LP  #  and the  lp * conditions.    
                 ( Comparing  the  reading  rates  when  Asleep* or  when  Awake #   )   


<>6         :  " from  COARSE  to  FINE     " from Texture  to text".                                                
                                                      " Para-foveal  pre-views? " 
                  Co-temporaneous  contributions  to the  synchronized  reading process  .                              
                           
                         


                       *****   SECTION   SEVEN :   with 7  Subsections . ******


<>7.0             SCANNING. The   Fixational  Captures,  and  their Integrations.               
 
 <>7.1           Saccades   match  to  the Visual-Span  Dimensions.


 <>7.2              SPEED – READER  :  Evelyn Wood.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    <>7.3                :  try  "Zipping  ". 


<>7.4              The   ENGRAMS '   Domain- Boundaries  .
                        Reading of   a   columnated TEXT  : see VIGNETTE . 


<>7.5            OCULOMOTOR-- ENTRAINMENTS .                                                                                                                                                              
                               
 <>7.6              PROSODY  and  RHYTHM ,   Multimodal  Expressions.                                                                                                                                                                                                          .                            Glass L. 2001   " What is the origin of physiological rhythms?                                                                                                                              .                      How do the rhythms interact with each other and the external environment 


  <>7.7                     The  Streaming  of  Literary  Content when Writing ., 
                             CURSIVE WRITING :  an observation of  the  mechanics .

                                          
**************************************************************


<>8               PROVENANCE of  ENGRAMS   with  DISTINCTIVE   FORMATS                              
                                     Longevity,   Decay  or  Deployments .                 


<>9               RELATIVE  MOTION   between  III lp*  ENGRAM  TEXTS  and  lexors                                      


<>10               ACCELERATED     LEXICAL  ENGRAM  PROCESSING  lp *
                                ?   Replications of  Computer Edit- Marks        .                    


<>11                FLICKER   10  to 40 Hz triggers an. autonomous replay


   <>12                  EXTRANEOUS   IMAGES :  appear   on   HETEROTOPIC  fields       
 
<>13                MECHANICS and PARAMETERS  in  ASSIMILATION of a  TEXT  
                                   From letter recognition to the  vectors of attention 


<>14               STOCHASTIC  RESONANCE  : The  UMBRAL VIEW ,  tag  ☹                                                                         


<>15                 READING,  and the HYPNOPOMPIC  WINDOW { in limbo *} .                                                          
                          RSVP  performance  is comparable  to  this  off-line,  in- limbo    


<>16                      ACME .  Archived  Compacted  Multiple Engrams  
                          Topologically Organized  Compression.   Multilayer perceptrons?.                                                                                                                          
 
 <>17                     ATTENTION !     and  the  " vectors of attention " .                                                                                                                                                                 


<>18                                   The BABY-CAN-READ!  Titzer Model:                   
                               In  symbolic  recognitions  the   Word-shapes 
                                        precede the  letter - recognitions  


 <>19                               The ENGRAM   READING  MODE    
                                                       and  Evelyn Wood                                                                 
   
<>20                               "   Computers,  iPads ,  or Paper Texts  " :    
                                        Designs  for   Efficient- Reading -  in-Comfort  ?  
  
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////    




 fig I  .       The following  figure  roughly  illustrates  the magnitudes  of  the  three scalar  LEXORS which are concentric ;  not seriatim  as here displayed.




While  using  standard  texts  with  Times  New Roman  at 12 pt . font , single spaced  in  the screen   normal,  " print  " view , one  line  extending for  20 cm  is read  with  three  or four saccades .  As may easily be verified when  monocularly  fixating  the center  of the screen , the  blind spots  of Mariotte  thus  fall on the margins of  a  text as  customarily viewed  at  ~  45 cms: an  arm's length. 


 fig   ii.     Illustration of an  Engram  witnessed  Sept 12 2001 ,  at 6.am. " in limbo "  
           
A   spontaneous  Engram ,  emergent  in a  brief  sleep- to-wake- arousal.
 
This  2001 portrayal (  with an added, EDITED  insert )  depicted  an   Engram of  a  two-column text.   Over-all  illegible,   yet within  a  one  degree circular  lexor  there were perceptible three or four legible  letters, strings  streaming  rapidly from right to left  <<< ,  and  flickering  out- of- phase  with each other ( at  about  12 Hz ) within the domain of  a  one- degree  manifold:. 30 micron   retinal - foveola). 


                                  

These  now- reported  engrams  appear  in spatial parity,  manifesting  the  visual data  which  had been acquired during the reading epoch .

On  the 30-cm  normal-  view  on  screen,  three lower- case letters  and one space per  cm.  subtends one degree when viewed  at  45 cms  , constituting   one texton    Legge  1985   measured  the  reading rates for text scanned across the face of a TV monitor : maximum reading rates were achieved with characters  of 0.3 degree  up to 2 degrees subtense. This  subtense  of  one degree  replicates that of  the 300 micron retinal  foveola,  not that of the five- degree  retinal  Fovea. 

The contemporary  note had  described " a large area  of coarse text:  with  rare  

twin- cursors... drifting down-wards "  By  later  interpretations ,  the  relative  motions are   recognized  as  an  up-shifting  of the  ENGRAM  text.  


Relative- Motions of  the Engram –Components may be    witnessed  during the  off-line lexical  processing.   These   motions as  subsequently  witnessed in limbo have  indicated up–shifting  of  the  ENGRAM texts  at about 2 degrees  per second  The  slow up- drifting  of the engram, and with a  leftward  rotating of the  text,   enables the continuous operation  of the three ,  stationary concentric , simultaneous functioning, cortical  scalar  lexors  i)  ii) iii) . 
  Haydn  N. 2005   "We analyze a skew integrable map defined on a cylinder that models a shear flow"  





************************************************************************


 The  Temporal integration (on-line) of  word recognitions.


Temporal Parameters  :During fluent- reading of  standard text (  TR 12 pt  at 75% , as  read at 45 cms.,  three fixations  per- second   per- line  is  attained
" The full activation  or  ignition  of specifically distributed binding circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing..... at 300 msec " Pulvermüller F  2009   .       
Dehaene  2010"   finds   with a  presentation duration of  80 msec ,  that cortical level is  attained  by  300 msec."   
  
                                               *******************************




3/19/ 2009                "Attentive spot-lights ? ":  The  Lexor - Phenomena  are thus 
                                 witnessed occasionally, explicit  only in Condition III 
                                                 in  a brief  sleep- to-wake arousal". 
 
    The mechanism  of the  lexor-  lp* ,  resembling  "  a  bright- soliton",   increases  the contrast  of textons  at locations within  this lexor's   one degree  boundary , matching   the  'scope of the 30 micron   retinal – fove-ola ). 


The five degree circular lexor - Lp * , rarely seen,  is  scalar with the retinal Fovea . 


  Lexor LP # , with a three  by  ten- degree subtense  ( the interval between the optic nerve heads)  
  is perceived as a streaming- darkening along  a single  line of an otherwise  "  illegible engram " .    
  Active only  in  the   mid-third of a line and only  in the mid-third  a 30 degree engram   display-field ,   this dimension  equals  the  fixational-  domain in the  on-line  3- saccade ,  fluent- reading performance    
        Putatively  these functions are all   registered  simultaneous during each on-line  fixation, and the  compounded off-line data  remain cognitively accessible,  though generally  im-perceptible . 

The   RECURSIVE   LEXICAL   ENGRAMS
Their  AUTONOMY,  FIDELITY &   LONGEVITES   


 This  Engram  Reading- Paradigm    supports and  extends  current findings  and  theories  on  lexical  processing  and   on off-line memory- consolidations .,     
                                                      see AVB  .Part Two , and Default Networks .   



*****************************************************************************
                                                
  Recursive Semantic  Engrams, as now  described in  Part Two  of  this monograph: AVB


" The  AUTONOMOUS  VISUAL BRAIN  "      AVB
 
             AVB   Part one:   The geometric  patterns of spontaneous brain activity :   
                                          the innate  antecedents  of  Semantic Engrams .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
             AVB  Part two :  Recursive  Semantic Engrams, task related :                                                                                                                                                              .                                         these  substrates  enable cognition, navigation and literacy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
              AVB  Part three : Essays , abstracts  and speculations : 
                                            Entoptic  and   Mnemonic Images. 1962-2012  


                                       
                  
The  ATTENTIVE   and  the  DEFAULT - FUNCTIONS .


                                                                      DICTA 


Turk-Browne  2005  " It requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli, but the resulting learning then occurs without intent or awareness." 
        "It is increasingly understood  that lexical, semantic,  and syntactic information can be processed by the central nervous system  outside the focus of attention in a largely automatic manner" Pulvermuller F 2006.   " The full activation  or  ignition  of specifically distributed binding- circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing."  (  see Pelli   2006 . )       
 Jensen O, 2006   portrays  a cortical multi-item working memory buffer " in which theta and gamma oscillations have an important role…in recall 
  Schacter DL. 2009 " The resting- brain  is associated with significant intrinsic activity ; fluctuations   measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging.       Their nature and function are poorly understood.".
IXP  2011    Default- networks  act unsupervised during the  SWS non-REM  Sleep  periods  which     support  the  task-related efforts  in vigilance ;   and  thus  may  act  peremptorily in emergencies
                                                                                                       .see  .Goodale MA 2008
 Schacter DL.2011  "  problem-solving simulations may allow default network regions to be coactive with task-positive network regions,   without suppressing the contribution of either network.


                THESIS  :    READING  is an  ENGRAM- DEPENDENT  SKILL :    
                                          Contingent upon  Autonomy  and  upon  Default – systems  


These   BRIEF    REVIEWS  precede  the  MAIN   TEXT. 
  

PREFACE     1)          CATEGORICAL   DISTINCTIONS  of  Entopic Images      

PREFACE     2)        " ICONIC " MEMORIES:   Implicit  or  Explicit ?              


PREFACE    3 )       "  ENGRAMS.                         
                                The term " engram" attributed  to Richard Semon ,1904
                                ( see  Schacter D.L.2001   "  Richard Semon and the Story of Memory.. " 
                       
PREFACE     4)           MNEMONIC   STORAGE  :  ASSUMPTIONS                


PREFACE    5 )         INTER- DISCIPLINARY   TERMINOLOGIES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                .                                        Your "Chunks"  :  My " Engrams " ?    


 PREFACE  6 )           MNEMONIC - RESEARCH :   METHODS                            


PREFACE   7 )           Defenders   of " EXACT- SUBJECTIVISM"


PREFACE  8 )           AUTONOMY  and   DEFAULT  SYSTEMS                        
                            Recurrent  Dynamics  in  Excitable Media. 
                   
  


The  RECURSIVE   LEXICAL   ENGRAMS
              . .                             Their  AUTONOMY,  FIDELITY &   LONGEVITES    


    The term  and  the  properties  of the " engram" attributed  to Richard Semon ,1904;
 Schacter D.L.2001"  Richard Semon and the Story of Memory.. " 
                       
 RECURSIVE- ENGRAM   FINDINGS  since  2000;   IXP.       
The recursive  and covert  lexical engrams,  which  are   acquired while reading ,  are invisible in the dark , yet may be  witnessed as explicit in  these  three conducive  conditions:    


  I)   with closed, lit eyes , in  the Umbral view, a stochastic- resonance  effect .


 II )   with imposed  flicker; 4-40 Hz .  Jensen O, 2006   portrays  a cortical multi-item working memory buffer " in which theta and gamma oscillations have an important role…in recall ." 


 III)  as  spontaneous images ,  seen  ☹ while awakening  "in status limbo".   These  findings  are  consistent with  the  generally- suspected  mnemonic   consolidations:   verbatim et literatim .     
  Schacter DL. 2009 " The resting- brain  is associated with significant intrinsic activity ; fluctuations   measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Semantic Engrams .    Ortho-graphic  (Lexical )  and  the Scenic -Motion (Dynamic ) engrams are imperceptible in the dark  or in  the presence of  homotopic on-line images , yet  these   engrams  may be rendered - explicit in the  state- dependent  conditions,  as above . 

These   Recursive  Lexical-Engrams  I  first  encountered  in  2000,  and  the  Dynamic Engrams  later,  in Sept  2001.    Both  these phenomena  had emerged  unsought, and were then  labeled " Illusory Images"      Thereafter  I  learned  that  both  the  term   "engram "  and the  concept had been  published  earlier . 
However   in   the literature  on  visual- memory and  the  neuro-mechanics of reading ,   few authors   address  as explicit  these  Recursive  Orthographic and  Dynamic  Engram Systems;   putatively  these are the  substrates of the  Implicit  PRS  of Tulving and Schacter, 1990 . 
                                        
ENGRAMS :    SPECIFIC  FACSIMILE  MEMORANDA

Engrams constitute  the  substrates of memory  and  of cognitive  functions  in the  short and in long term.  Specific  to each  modality :  the  audio,  visual , motion ,  verbal ,  corporeal -motor , tactile , olfactory  ; any  of these  engrams  may be temporally- linked ,  most notably   the audio-visual  domains ,  both  in the   innate and the  inculcate  circuits  .Reading  is an Engram- Dependent  Skill .     

Few  readers find it remarkable that neither blinking nor saccades disrupts  their  view of the page before them, and many seemed  unaware  of  their own  subarticular -voicing as  they  silently read  texts.       With their  eyes then  closed in ambient light,  few readers  note  that  horizontal dark lines of printing  may   emerge to view..(.following   a  4- seconds adaptive - delay .      These positive  images  are the   primary Lexical  Engrams . 

Seen in a  low- salience and in coarse- rendering in this  shaded " Umbral "state ,    stochastic- resonance  is   obtained  with the  closed- and – illuminated eye lids.  These  recursive   Engram  may also   be  triggered  by flicker  from stroboscopic oscillations toggled between  10 to 40 Hz. : also elicited  by  simple  finger- flickering, thus .....

By substituting a blank   document  screen in place of  this  currently- read text,  an  engram may   appear   promptly  when triggered  by  " Purkinje  finger- fanning."        
With  the two hands held open  and close to the face  and agitated  past each other at a comfortable  45 degrees and  maximum  speed,   the   oscillations may  then  approach   effective range ,  the dark horizontal   lines of  an  engram  text  can   emerge promptly in  fair contrast ,  the layout discernable   .   Purkinje in  1823  had  described   " Vierecke:   large and small quadrilaterals  ... seen best by fixating  a  bright surface and waving the fingers  rapidly before the  eyes  ". Vierecke:  the  illegible words ?      An  engram thus triggered  may represent  the layout  of that  text just  read ,  or  facsimile  of  a  text read earlier... for the   longevities  of  these  covert  engrams  exceed  24  hours.      
 

Entoptic Perceptions  and functions  of  the  Recursive Lexical  Engrams  are  further  detailed  in   Part Two  of   AVB :  Task- related  mnemonic - substrates which  enable cognition, navigation,  and literacy. 

THESIS   STATEMENT

"  Reading  is an Engram- Dependent  Skill . "
 
The   on-line   fluent-reading with retention  of semantic  content is  contingent upon  cognitive access to the  covert  off-line   recursive  Lexical Engrams .  Pulvermuller 2006  states  "  Lexical information can be processed by the central nervous system outside the focus of attention ...in a largely automatic manner".       Subjective access  to  these  covert recursive  mnemonic images   may be   rendered explicit in three state- dependent conditions. It is concluded  that " Learning- to- Read"  is   Engram- Dependent  .    
Pulvermüller F  2009 "  The full activation  or  ignition  of specifically distributed binding- circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing."   [ see  Pelli G 2006 .  ." the  LWS " categories .]             

LEXICAL  Functioning  Requires :

             *  Incremental  isometric embedding  of textons  -- while  reading  a page of text.

             *  High-dimensional data --   with  TEXTS  retained  verbatim  et  literatim .                                                     
             *  Connected- neighborhoods  --   for multiple  Engrams'  associations . 

LITERACY  requires cognitive - access  to  Multiple  Archived Engrams.   
It may be contended  that during  life  the brain is never " at rest" :  dreaming in some phases of sleep , and in other phases " consolidating "  the very specific  in-put imprints   ...  the   engrams of the previous day's experiences.  These  autonomous lexical   processes  which function during the day,   continue  overnight  during the  Short- Wave -Sleep  phases;  in the  non-REM .sleep  .   

Experiences  of  EXPLICIT   Recursive  Visual  Engrams

Chance  Encounters  in 2000   initiated this  ongoing   study  of  phenomenal  Lexical  Engrams.    Routine  daily- reading  of TR 12 ,75% at 45 cms   has since  2000  served  as the  regular tasks which generate  the  covert  autonomous  Lexical Engrams.   
 Findings    Evidence of  recursive visual  memory systems  is obtained  following  the  free- viewing  of   motile textures or  structures ,  and also  of  dynamic  events.  Following  the  saccadic reading  of  texts,  and   despite  the number of saccades  made  (probably three per line, 60  per page  ),  and regardless  of the  duration of each  dwell- point  (probably of  ~  80 msec  ) ... the  resulting engrams- in- recursion  appears as  an intact photo- copies,  the  achromatic  facsimiles  of the texts. .   
                                                                                                                
The recursive  and covert  lexical engrams  thus  autonomously acquired  are invisible in the dark , yet may be  witnessed as explicit in  these three conducive - conditions :.
   
 I)   with closed, lit eyes , in  the Umbral view  ☹   a   stochastic- resonance  effect .
 II )   with imposed  flicker; 4-40 Hz .in bright light     
 III)  as  spontaneous images ,  seen while awakening  ☹ "in status limbo".   These  images  are  consistent with  the  generally- suspected   nocturnal  consolidations,  verbatim et literatim .            
Richard  Semon  in 1904  had  postulated " engram-  reactivation  by the recurrence of  those energetic conditions which had  ruled at the generation of that  engram".. This  statement   broadly addressed  today's   current   issues  of mnemonic entrainment -and - recall. 

Investigations  of  Visual  Mnemonic  Systems.

STANDARD  RESEARCH   METHODS.
( see  Preface  SIX , below. )

Protocols commonly  require  that chins are  immobilized  and gazes fixed upon relatively impoverished  or artificial stimuli ... " despite the fact  that  primates  actively examine the visual world by rapidly shifting gaze over the elements in a scene.  " Rajkai C,  2008 
 
" In the  study of reading skills  a  methodology  with five lines of text  yields multiple inspection parameters ."  Pynte J 2006.     
 " Natural viewing conditions can lead... accidentally...  to validations  of unsuspected  correlations of  phenomena ,  and  may give impetus to new directions . " Bartels and Zeki 2005

The  Phenomena  encountered  as  off-line  Images,  2000  to date.      
     
2000 July 22         Recursive  Lexical- Engrams 
2000  Oct 16         Autonomous Lexors
2001  Feb 13         Engrams  Triggered by Flicker
2001  Sept 8         Spatial- Motion- Memory, Dynamic-  Engrams 
2003⎯2008          Lexical Archives with  Shifting Engram Spread-sheets...        
                                        
                                            INTROSPECTIVE   EVIDENCE. 
                                           Defenders of  Exact- Subjectivism. 


Grusser, OJ . 1984  noted   that " Purkinje was a careful observer who proclaimed and exemplified  the value  of exact subjectivism".     This  approach we may strive to emulate  . 
  Lehar S 2003  commends " the  primacy of subjective conscious experience. rather than the modeling of  the objective  neurophysiological state of the visual system ... which  supposedly subserves that experience "                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Dehaene S  2007 .   "Understanding the extent and the limits of non-conscious processing is an important step on the road to a thorough understanding of the cognitive and cerebral correlates of conscious perception "  


 Stickgold R. 2010  notes .."hippocampus-dependent learning is accessible during non-REM sleep, and that hippocampus-mediated memory reactivation may be expressed, not only through neural activity in the sleeping brain,..... but also within concomitant subjective- experience.


. E Wamsley  2010   "  Slow wave sleep was the only sleep parameter to correlate positively with declarative memory improvement      Introspective reports can provide a valuable window on cognitive processing in the sleeping brain" 


       The casual. opportunistic  viewings  of   dynamic events,  of  streaming- fluids  and of  turbulences   generated the  recursive  Motion-memory  Engrams ,   the second  and   third- order  motions  here  reported .   see  Topic  C7,  in  Part  Two  of  AVB.   The normal saccadic  reading  of texts  generated  the  Lexical Engrams.
   In- vivo  Estimates :   A  familiarity  with   normal  entopic  structures ,  with  retinal vasculature and  with  the Mariotte  blind spot  has  served  for the  subsequent  evaluations   and scaling of  the landmarks  of  other entoptic  patterns : notably    the   Spiral  and Travelling Waves,  Topics  D12 , and  D11,  in Part One ;  and for  the Semantic Engrams, Topics   B5 .and C7 ,  presented  in  the monograph ;  The  Autonomous  Visual  Brain .                                      
  
Scalar Parity , equated  as the  visual angle subtenses,  matches the  input  sources 
Teichert T  2007 favors the hypothesis  that processing in V1 supports scale-invariant aspects of visual performance,  Intact  visual Engrams  appear   in  spatial- parity in  terms of angular  subtenses ,  putatively   resonating   thus throughout the sensorium  
   An  interesting   exception  is found in   the case  of  the archived lexical engrams . ACME  the  Archived  Compacted  Multiple Engrams  ,  each  minified by an order of magnitude .   B5  <>16  

                                                         
APOLOGIA                                   
                                   Rigorous  Subjective Experience,   as Science .  

-- "Introspective experiments are usually considered second-best  in scientific investigations  …but when carried out with rigor  these have been of greater import  in the study of  human  vision  than  the mass of objective  undertakings ". -- Duke Elder, S . Systems of Ophthalmology  XV volumes.  C .V. Mosby 1968)   Though  predating  the advent  of  fMRI  technologies and  in- vivo  single- neuron recordings ,  his view  remains  pertinent.   


 Lehar  S,  2003  commends  " the  primacy of subjective conscious experience  .. rather than the modeling  of   the objective   neurophysiological state of the visual system which  supposedly subserves that experience " . 


 "Experimentally unbiased  and independent of hypothesis-driven, specialized stimuli...                         ...an  opportunistic approach ... relies.. on natural brain dynamics  . 
 Natural viewing conditions lead to particularly  specific interregional correlations  and thus provide a powerful environment to reveal anatomical connectivity in vivo " Bartels, Zeki  2005  


   Subjectivity has been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm ".  Jahn RG, Dunne BJ.  2007                                                                                                                                                                                    
                 " Exact  subjectivism by a very careful observer  "  was  commended  by Purkinje  .                                                                                                          
                                        This practice we also may strive  to emulate .                                                                                                                                                           

             Spatial- Dynamic  and  Orthographic Mnemonic  Engram systems.  
                              
.      These   recursive  semantic  engrams  reach explicit  perception only  in state –dependent  conditions .  Of  the  two  functionally distinct mnemonic systems thus  identified,    one  system  briefly conserves  "navigational  data "  which enables  ambulation ,   the other system maintains  orthographic inputs with  verbatim retention  of the  texts , which function serve  literacy .      " The verification of  prolonged stable  persistence of a  visual  pattern  after brief  priming and with  recall  in  high-fidelity   extends the horizons  for  theorists  and experimentalists   Rolls  ET  2005.


Jahn RG, Dunne BJ.  2007  "-  Subjective data , while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue and cultural purpose  of its rigidly objective predecessor, have the following requirements:-                                                       
*  an  acknowledgment of a proactive  role for human consciousness. (  the  BIASED  prepared  mind ?)
* a more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors;   (and   defined specific  
terminology  )


*  more generous interpretations   of measurability,  replicability, and resonance                                                                                                                          


*  a  reduction of ontological aspirations.  .......
                                            
                                                       Strict Automaticity?                                                                        


Autonomous neural  processes with deterministic responses may be  detected in Homo Sapiens, in most animated  species;  and apparently also   in-vitro  cell cultures.
  "Functional structure of cortical neuronal networks grown in vitro.  Despite their ex-vivo development, the connectivity maps derived from cultured-neural-assemblies are similar to other biological networks and display nontrivial structure in clustering coefficient, network diameter, and assortative mixing."  Bettencourt LM,  2007


"Many action -tasks have strict temporal constraints, which can only be  met  if the visual information is relayed directly to the motor system   without first passing through a conscious decision- making process. " Milner AD, Goodale MA. 2008

"Autonomous systems are the result of self-sustaining processes , constitution of an identity under precarious circumstances."  Di Paolo EA, Iizuka H. 2008

"Being fast enough for use in real-time  autonomous agent  applications , use of  a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas….develops  action –selection- mechanisms in an autonomous agent." Harter D 2005


"The architectural coupling between prey interception and retention has probably played a key role in both the macroevolution of orb web shape and the expression of plasticity in the spinning behaviours of spiders."  Watanabe T.2000

*************************************************************************

In  FLUENT   READING :   the  NEURO- MECHANICS


The  following  metrics   are  obtained  with a  standard  TR 12 pt  75% . When  read in print-  layout  at  40 cms . in normal horizontal linear  reading with the  three  fixations per line,   the  two forward- saccades  each  span   10 -- 8 degrees , and one  return - saccade  of 20 degrees.  


" The  Writable  Lexical  Slate"   in the brain   measures  ~  30 degrees subtense:   the 1 cm  interval between the    optic nerve heads);  as  is  verifiable  entoptically  while witnessing the  engrams. ( see  Entoptic  Visualization  and Impletion of the Blind Spot    IXP  Arch. Ophth 1968)
     
Letter- recognitions  are made at  fixations : in  the one - degree   angular – subtense;  the words  (standard  TR 12 pt )   are   recognized  in the  5 degree  angular- subtense ,    and the   phrases in 3 x10 degree  horizontal- parcels. 

The   one-degree  lexor  lp*   captures   graphemes  <  3 letters ,   as  refined text.  The Lexor  Lp #     of    degrees-  capture  words  <  10 letters…morphemes .  The  Linear LP  #  spans 3 x10 degrees,  capturing   phrases   > 5   words   > 20  letters.

In normal horizontal linear  reading , recognitions  are made  simultaneously  by lexors   in  the one  degree , five and ten  degree subtenses  .  Thus in fluent reading  the  three  concentric " afferent  lexical agents "  operate  simultaneously  and  with  congruent  cortical  summations  .  see  commentaries  by Pelli and Tillman, 2007,   L.W.S .,  and  the  Engram Reading Paradigm  , IXP.
       

The  Autonomous Engram systems   are deemed  the  innate  mnemonic   assets , functional in most animate species ,  systems  which presently  support  our inculcate   reading - skills  .
     
The  standard  pedagogic  methods  of  reading- instruction  may be  revised  by the Titzer enterprise "  yourbabycanread";   evidence   which  prompts  e-evaluations  of  current  dogmas  on learning,  memory , and reading skills.  .    
    
           Recursive   Spatial Motion- Memory Engrams ,  Topic C 7.  

 These dynamic  images ,  incorporating  the  retinal , vestibular and the oculomotor inputs,. are  perceptible only in the  umbral view. 
These   achromatic  " mnemonic master - packages’    traverse  cerebral networks via the dorsal path ,  establish  the  topologies  and  synchronize  the  co-temporaneous  hetero-sensory  modalities  and  proprioceptive  inputs.   Cornelissen  1998  describes  "Coherent Motion Detection and Letter Position Encoding ". "Neural synchronization is engaged in the binding of verbal and spatial information."   Cornelissen  P  2006 .  
  Three  sensors , the  lexical  detectors,  lexors ,  are  operational in synchronized temporal  circuits ,  appear  also  spatially-concentric.  IXP 2000


       Recursive  Lexical  Engrams . Topic B5.                                 
 
 Although  generally  covert ,  the Lexical  engrams may be  experienced  as explicit in  the following  three state-dependent conditions,  here  further detailed : 


(1)   With closed  , lit eyes  the Engrams emerge in  this  shadowed " umbral ☹  view ". Their textures,  achromatic  and in low salience,  reach threshold  in stochastic  resonance . These   Primary  engrams  may then  persist perceptibly   for up to 120 seconds.   see  comments  by  Leopold DA.2003 , here  in Preface 3 . 

(II)   With imposed flicker toggled  between 4-40 Hz.:  these the  Secondary  engrams,  salient  at  higher  luminances .  portrays  a cortical multi-item working  buffer " in which theta and gamma oscillations have an important role…in recall ." see Semon R , 1904 .


(III)   While awakening "in limbo status" an  entoptic  engram-text may  briefly  reappear  as  explicit in   umbral ☹  view,   and  with  indications  of the  generally-suspected  off-line nocturnal  consolidations in this Tertiary  engram  mode:  evidence of   retention  verbatim et literatim  is  consistent with  the  generally- suspected   nocturnal  semantic  consolidations.            
(IV)  Intact  visual  Engrams, putatively   resonating throughout the sensorium ,  appear   in  parity in  terms of angular  subtenses with their sources ( except  for the compacted  lexical  Archives . ACME , Quaternary   engrams )

        It is concluded  that " Learning- to- Read" is  an  Engram-Dependent  Function .  
Convergent  with  current  theories  on   reading skills and literacy,  the  subjective manifestations  of these  Lexical  Engrams, the   Textons  and  the  Lexors  are  presented  here  for appraisal, comment and replication :   supplementing  current  theories  on  reading processes, on  spatial  memory  and retrievals.

The following  brief  PREFACES  precede  the  MAIN   TEXT


PREFACE   1)       CATEGORICAL   DISTINCTIONS  of  Entopic Images        

Classical  Early After- images:  These bi-stable  retinal   images are neither covert,  nor motile,  nor achromatic.    

 Photic  after-images and the  Pressure  Phosphenes :   these  fluctuate  over time with regard to  apparent contrast and  hue , and with changes  in ambient light;   these  retinal  images  are visible in the dark..  .
Eidetics .  Miller S, Peacock R  .in  1982  described " long-lasting, percept-like experiences critically dependent on level of illumination and  easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli"  ( four  characteristics  of  the  Engrams ). 
" Imagery "    This  faculty  is   claimed by  some  80%  of  populations ,  some  with  their  cortical activities  validated by  fMRI  studies    Apparently  color is  present in  these   "imagery " displays . (  A  personal  disclaimer  by   IXP : one  of several individuals  unable  to  perform  deliberative  or guided " imagery"     The Engrams as  here described  are  achromatic ,  autonomous, and cannot be voluntarily  recalled .)    
   Bartolomeo P.  2009 :  " An assessment- battery for visual mental imagery and visual perception :     Results seem   in-consistent with hypotheses postulating a strict correspondence between perceptual and imagery abilities." 

    The   Recursive  Engrams are  not the products of  purposed- imagery, but are autonomous- facsimiles  rendered  in stereotopic  Tempero-Spatial  Parity  with  their  originating  on-line - perceptions  . 
   These  Engrams  have  appear  in  two functionally- distinct mnemonic  systems ;  the Scenic  Motion-memory system is arguably  innate;   the  Orthographic system   is clearly inculcate.   Both these   phenomena    may be witnessed  as explicit engrams    Their  functional  segregations were  recognized by  Tulving  and, Schacter , 1990 ,  as the  Scenic  or Verbal mnemonic entities .  Engrams   are  identified  as   the   explicit  recursive substrates of the  implicit PRS systems.                                    
  
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII

PREFACE    2)    " ICONIC " MEMORIES:   Implicit  or  Explicit ?        


"When a stimulus is presented, its sensory trace decays rapidly, lasting for approximately 1000 ms.   This brief and labile memory is referred to as iconic memory .
" This memory decays rapidly and after a second only 3 or 4 items can be stored in working memory. "  Graziano M, Sigman M.2008 and  2009. 


Investigators  referring specifically to a  phenomenal  "Iconic Memory " have included : 
         Coltheart M.1983 ,  Di Lollo V, Dixon P.1988                                                                                                                                                                                                                          .                Sperling G.1993.     Billock VA.1997.     Tatler BW, Melcher D.2007.   
.                           Thomas LE, Irwin DE.2006.     Sligte IG, Scholte HS,  Lamme VA.2008.   

Various visual  tasks , geometric  or  semantic,  may be  imposed upon  the  research- participants, and conclusions  are  then  reached by the  monitoring  of  their behavioral responses , or by  the  use of  electronic devices . 
. Borst G, Kosslyn  SM.2008   had their  participants  to  "scan over patterns- of - dots in a mental image ...with images based on a  just-seen pattern."  There is some uncertainty as to  what  scanning  entails  in  mental imagery. 
  Pinker S. 1998   suggests that " mental- image scanning is a process distinct from eye movements or eye-movement commands" ...  as  is  here  affirmed . <>9  
 In smooth pursuit, a  sensor  and its  target remain convergent, linked .               
Reichle ED   2006 :  " effects of higher level language processing are not observed  on eye movements when such processing is occurring" 
Lamme VA. 2009   " Recent   fMRI  studies have shown the existence of a form of visual memory that lies intermediate of iconic memory and visual short-term memory (VSTM), in terms of both capacity (up to 15 items)    and the duration of the memory trace (up to 4 s). "   .
[  Engrams are not subject to such  brief  temporal  limitations , nor to  the  above capacitance  restrictions  IXP]

Stringer SM,  2004 .     Dissipative  Dynamical  Systems . MAPS  .." Continuous attractor neural networks. operate with.. localized packets  ..Such a network could, by learning, self-organize to enable the packets in each space to be moved continuously in that space by idiothetic (motion) inputs. "   
  Since  neither Retinal  nor  Cortical  images  can  be  scanned   foveally- by- oculomotion, it  is the  informational  " MAPS"  which  shift  during the   off-line  lexications  as observed  . IXP.     <>9  

EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE


 PREFACE   3)     ENGRAMS.  CONCEPTS   since  1904  
The term engram was coined in 1904  by  Richard Semon, who  defined engrams  as "stimulus impressions ..which could be reactivated by the recurrence of  the energetic conditions which had ruled at the generation of the engram."       In  the 1936 edition of Dorland's Medical Dictionary,   an engram  was there  defined as 'a lasting mark or trace '    The 1950 .  Concise Oxford Dictionary ; " En-grave:  to impress deeply ,  as  upon  memory. "                                                                                                                                     "In  Search of the Engram " was  published by K S Lashley 1950 .  In 1930 Lashley wrote "'The facts of both psychology and neurology show a degree of plasticity, of organization, and of adaptation and behavior which is far beyond any present possibility of explanation.'  "  McGaugh JL 1966 ,  commented  " Although this conclusion is still valid, the current surge of interest in memory storage offers hope that this conclusion may soon need to be modified."                                                                                                                                   Glen Fry in 1969  discerned  the " positive after-image"  as having a composite- nature, and  that it  demonstrated  120 second  longevities  after cessation of the stmiulus."  Identical  longevities of primary engrams were  recorded  IXP.  Oct 15  2000.)   
         In 1971  Buresová O, Bures J, Rustová M.  published  papers  entitled:  "Acquisition and Retrieval of Visual Engrams":  "Consolidation of Visual Engrams" ; and even  the  " Interocular and Interhemispheric Transfer of Visual Engrams in Callosotomized Rats ".! 
       .Coltheart M.  1980 :  The Persistences of Vision  ."  Phenomenological neural persistence and informational persistence ..  are  issues with which cognitive psychology has yet to come to grips. "       
       Miller S, Peacock R.. in 1982  wrote  " Eidetic imagery appears to be a long-lasting, percept-like experience which varies considerably in clarity and definition; its duration is critically dependent on level of illumination and its contents are easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli".    These  five criteria closely match the 2000  IXP  Engram parameters     
      G.M. Long  in  1985   reported “ Visual persistence  from brief  letters and  pictures."             
      Tulving and Schacter  1990 : identified  implicit learning  by a  perceptual representational  semantic systems, the  PRS : suggesting that  the PRS has evolved  to perform only ecologically valid  computations .
     Kuttner RE.1986  "'  it is possible for some mnemonic elements to survive during aphasia and senile dementias, while closely linked synonymous engrams are lost." 
 Leopold DA.2003   noted  that " by periodic closing of the eyes, perception can become locked or "frozen" in one configuration for  several minutes at a time."....   and  that stimulus-selectivity of responses in  primate infero-temporal cortex  is stable across days and weeks of visual experience.  
   All the above criteria  seem consistent with the  semantic engrams' state-dependencies and re-activations .  IXP 2000  .   see  Main Text  .
         
     RETRIEVAL  PROPERTIES  (  postulatde or identified ) for   Mnemonic  Systems   

 Blake  R 1997 .. for  subsequent deployment .. in cognitive judgments…. motion  memory  ..   necessarily  maintained   with some degree of  accuracy  
Magnussen S, 1999 …. coupling  to a memory store.   series of parallel special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources …
 Bibitchkov D,.2002  ……  Pattern storage and processing in attractor networks ….
 Pollen DA.  2003 ….. recursive processing ….the combined flow and integrated outcome of afferent and recurrent activity across a series of cortical areas.  .
Dudai Y.   2004 ….  persistence, retrievability, and modifiability  
Schacter DL   2004  …   a nonconscious form of memory.     Itemizing  a  previous encounter 
Rolls  ET  2005   …   visual  patterns  with  recall  in  high-fidelity… prolonged stable  persistence. after brief  priming,  … .
Jensen O.  2006  …  multiple working memory items ..  maintained by temporal segmentation
Basole A, 2006 ….. patterns of activity evoked by complex stimuli   .. best understood in  the context of a single map of spatiotemporal energy   
Stringer SM,  2006  …..  Continuous attractor neural networks  which  can maintain a  localised  packet  of neuronal activity representing the current state of an agent in a continuous space without external sensory input    
 Wandell  BA 2007   … principles at coarse scale which organize  cortical  spatial arrangements…and  co-ordinate  the  timing of events in short-term memory  
Tsodyks M,. 2003 …..   Spontaneously emerging cortical representations ( in   lp  mode)  
Tsodyks M. 2006 … approximated versions  of  the orientation maps, .emerging  when the  . .  network is presented with an unstructured noisy input   ( the UMBRAL  views    ?  )                       
White OL, .2004  ….  sequences   retrievable from the instantaneous state of the network.,
Kempter R. 2006  …  in  long sequences  ; apparently  one order of magnitude below the capacity  .  (  as  Multiple,  miniaturised:  see  Essay  X.)
Haydn N, 2005  …  ? …a   dissipative  Henon map…?
        
Pseudo - science  ?    As first published in 1950 , the book by L. Ron Hubbard reads :               
" The reactive mind does not store memories as we know them.   It stores particular types of mental image pictures called engrams."                                                          
Dianetics  are  now generally  regarded  as  classic examples   of pseudoscience,   however  the   descriptions given of some images suggests that at times  the autonomous  recursive visual- engrams  were  being experienced.  
The  recursive  visual engrams  have  some   features  in common with  the above  criteria;  
 many  authors  today understand  mnemonic acquisitions  to be  of  an autonomous  nature  .    
" The  neural correlates  of consciousness.... must include inhibitory subcortical  connections ,   and that  these functions .. are  largely those of " limiting coherence to a narrow range of cortical engrams ".. Helgason C  2006.


PREFACE   4)  MNEMONIC  STORAGE  and   RETRIEVALS:                
Hall  DC . 1974   in  considering mnemonic recall  mechanisms ,  suggested that " Eye movements scan iconic imagery. "   Such  an  ocular  pursuit  was  deemed unlikely .. contended  Saskit  B.  1976  " since the image moves with the eye ..."as  affirmed, IXP  .
Reichle ED   2006 :  "effects of higher level language processing are not observed  on eye movements when such processing is occurring" Affirmed, IXP  2000 
Coltheart M.1983  " The concept of a pre-categorical sensory memory remains tenable – with -  transferring  from iconic memory to a post-categorical memory."
Di Lollo V, Dixon P.1988  discerned -" Two forms of persistence in visual information ; .visible  persistence,   and the visual analog  representation."
Gegenfurtner KR, Sperling 1993  suggest that -subjects must transfer information from a rapidly decaying trace (iconic memory) to more durable storage.....
Billock VA.1997  postulates that  " the  site for very short-term (iconic) visual memory... could be  Crick's reverberatory loop. 
"Sligte IG, Scholte HS,  Lamme VA  2008  contend that  " subjects can still access information fr om iconic memory because they can see an  after-image  of the display''.. 
Jolij J, Lamme VA..2010   "Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced 'visual echoes' are generated in early visual cortex "   .... These are   the  recursive engrams ?           

Mnemonic  Retrievals:       

  RE-COGNITIONS  ?    Recalls  are   presumed  effected  by  Concatenations . 
" Re-cognition "  for  a  specific  input by  the   re-activation  of  matching   stored   engrams    predicates   that  the  installation of each engram may be writ  with  a  unique signature  in  broadband - neuro-oscillations,   and  disseminated  to a  cohort  of  multiple  linked – cerebral addresses. " .... Ringing  my  bell ?"   
      Richard  Semon  in 1904  had  attributed  " engram  reactivation  to the recurrence of  those energetic conditions which had  ruled at the generation of that  engram"...which statement   broadly addressed   current   issues  of mnemonic recall   and   triggering- oscillations ....  "energetic conditions"  ?   
Born J  2009  Diekelmann S, Born J.
  hypothesize that access to sleep-dependent consolidation  requires memories to be encoded under control of prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry " with the same circuitry controlling  the subsequent consolidation during sleep."    see Semon,, 1904.

Fahrenfort JJ, Scholte HS, Lamme VA.  2007    "Re-entrant  visual   loops .   Several subsequent stages show an alternating pattern of frontoparietal and occipital activity, all of which correlate highly with perception.
 Masking disrupts the  ' reentrant '  processing in human visual cortex.
studies from recent years indicate that visual perception--and most notably visual awareness itself--may depend strongly on cortico-cortical feedback connections from higher to lower visual areas"
Recursive lexical  primary engrams ( as STM ) are   cognitively   perceptible  for up to 120 seconds , shown  in  fMRI  studies  to   reverberate  in  multi-modal- afferenced  destinations ,  including  the  phonic and the  motor-  speech-  centers .  

      Cognitive  recalls  are  presumed  aroused  by  harmonic  concatenations   from one or  many   circuits ,   recalls   rallied  by  the  registering   of  " palpable hits'   on  the  responding   engrams  :    Re-cognition  of any  on-line signal  is  attained  by  an  alignment  with various   prior  co-gnitions ,  and with  sets of  acquired biases  .   

TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

PREFACE  5  )   TERMINOLOGIES  .


      INTER- DISCIPLINARY   Neologisms,   Terminologies  and  Usages . 

     Charles  Dodson ( Lewis  Carrol) quotes the Red  Queen telling Alice :  "When I use  a word   it shall  mean what I  intend it  to mean.."  

The term engram was  coined in 1904 by Richard Semon.    Semon  provided other terms , neologisms  of his own invention "  in order to avoid the potentially misleading connotations of ordinary language:  Engraphy,  and  Ecphory." ."  Engraphy referred to the encoding of information into memory;   engram refers to the change in the nervous system—the "memory trace"—that preserves the effects of  an experience."
 Ekphory  referred to  the retrieval process  (recursions)  "the influences which awaken the Mnemic trace or engram out of its latent state into one of manifested activity" (Semon, 1921), p.12).]  
  Schacter D.L.2001   draws  attention to Richard Semon and the story of memory.. "  Forgotten ideas, neglected pioneers "  Philadelphia: Psychology Press.(  A re-issue of " The Stranger behind the Engram".           
  Lehar S.   in  2003  comments on  the " Persistent Disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception .. and the Neurophysiological  level of description of the visual system. in computer models."  Thus : 
                   
Your  "Chunks " ...   My  "Engrams."
 
    Computer- Chunks:   characterized here by  Ceze  L.   206 543  1896      As judged  comparable to  the Visual-Engrams parameters, The  running  comments are  here made  as blue inserts .                           
                            
                        The  A-TOMICITY  of  CHUNKS     Ceze  L.  
            The  Engram's  Sharp- Bordered, Inviolate -Domains.    IXP  ]  
     
* A chunk in fine grain, is  an isolated atomicity, visible to other processes.                                                                                                                                                                   ....Visual Engrams have fixed boundaries , as if  for  read –only .
 *A chunk during its installation  is impervious from outside its domain .[..Lexical engrams appear inviolable  ;  but the Motion Engrams,  SMME  are subject  to vestibular  update interaction.    See Topic C7 <>3  .    Heteromodal  modification can thus  be  effected  by  an on-line vestibular in-put  to  an off-line , motion- engram ] 
Patan K  2007  *Sequential order is maintained  as a  second chunk is  initiated  going to  multiple  posted  addresses....  [ Cached, recursive  engrams ,   likewise.   Affirmed, IXP .  see ACME      

*    In-flight chunks  can inter-leave ...    Zhao D. Yang L. 2009  formulate the  " Incremental  isometric  embedding...of high-dimensional data... using connected neighborhood graphs".  Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell. .
... In-flight chunks ..? .. these are the recursive subjective  engrams ?    No evident  inter-leaving is witnessed with  lexical engrams  [  see the  a-tomicity  argument,  and the  claimed  scalar –parity- integrity ]  but some " assemblies " are witnessed  .  
  
  *Chunk order may be arbitrarily assigned  for progressively higher performance  through  multi-processor architecture......[as  for the  engrams  being recycled for  later  literary consideration?  )      Recursions , which are  explicit  in   limbo *  Hypnopompic  Views  occasionally  display  multiple adjacent,  sequential engrams .  see  topic X    2006   Archived Compacted  Micro- Engrams    ACME   

*  Bulk invalidations  " are  envisaged  as a  discarding  of  transaction  memories . ".... decay of the  engrams:  deterministic? .   use -it  or lose -it ? ]

*  Discarding  of  transactional  memories ..... [ In  subjective findings  of   primary ... transactional   motion memories ;  the  primary  SMME decay by amplitude- attrition , flat-lining  over 120 seconds,   while  the  Lexical Engrams are retained in  chronologically ordered blocks  over prolonged , but  indeterminate,  periods.  [   Essays X, XVI  ]   IXP           


             VISUAL  NOISE,   BINS ,  and  AGGREGATES.   (IXP  comments  in blue .)   
   
       The  following are  clips  culled chiefly  from  Neural Computation .                                  

Korn H, Faure P. 2003  .."  the role of neuronal attractors in information processing, perception and memory… general issue of chaos as a possible neuronal code,  and of the emerging concept of stochastic resonance * * [In the  umbral views , perceptual thresholds of the  primary  engrams are  lowered  by stochastic resonance. ]
Alvarez-Lacalle E, Moses E.2009,  " Slow and fast pulses in cultures of excitatory neurons.  demonstrate that proper levels of additive white noisy currents generate such pulses spontaneously."


*Shimazaki H, Shinomoto S.  2007 …  to obtain a meaningful time-dependent histogram with the required accuracy…a   method for selecting the bin size of a time histogram:
*. [Engram  Acquisitions:  tempero-spatial limits,  as  encountered  are  empiric .] 

* Burwick T.2007. self-organized segmentation of two over-lapping patterns.
 The superposition problem.
 
 *  [ Merging:   successful on- line  establishment  in  the  context  of  one  lexical  engram  which  is   assembled  with  successive  GISTS  of   100  overlapping  concordant  patterns  made while reading  the one page .  B5  <>7.0  Geometric – engrams  concordances  and   perceptual rivalries   See Essay Va  

*Burwick T.2007  Non- overlapping patterns can be simultaneously active with mutually different phases. …  *[  see  ACME .  Multiple  adjacent  lexical  engrams  > 36 in miniaturized display find   <>16 ,    or   see  Essay  X.  ]                   

*Johansson C, Lansner A  .2007  In order to achieve high storage capacity    at least 20 to 30 pyramidal neurons should be  compacted into a minicolumn and at least  50 to 60 minicolumns should be grouped into a hypercolumn  High  storage- capacity is  seen  with  multiple- minified   intact-  lexical  engrams  .  Essay  X  ,  the Archived  Compacted Multiple  Engrams :  ACME  ].
       
Stiesberg GR,  2007 ... living  CPGs as well as in model CPGs ..  are the most efficient in controlling  mechanical tasks,  [.See  B5    the  mechanical  Saccades  in reading ;  and in  Prosody, Topic  A3]

Triesch J. 2007 Apr;19(4):885-909   Synergies between intrinsic  and synaptic plasticity 
  [*  Acculturations    Essay  X.}.

 Volman V   2007 , an enveloping astrocytic domain….  dependent on previous activity at this and other nearby synapses.*  [  See   Astrocyte Activity  ...  Global  Percepts seen  with Closed Lids .   Filamentary  Flashes and  Stable Dots  seen  in  Dichoptic  Diffuse  steady  Light :   Essay  III d ]


Rolls ET, Stringer SM .2007   Invariant global motion... recognition in the dorsal visual system...: a unifying theory *   [ see Topic C 7 ,  motion memory . 


Renart A,   2007 Mean-driven and fluctuation-driven  persistent activity in recurrent networks    [ Serial - iterations ?   Complex  Motion  with  vortex - engrams .]   


"Current artificial systems do not match the robustness and versatility of their biological counterparts. "  Sinha P. 2002    Nat Neurosci. 2002  
                                            


//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


PREFACE  6 )         METHODS    in   MNEMONIC - RESEARCH    


" Traditional methods for exploring visual computations that use artificial stimuli with carefully selected properties have been and continue to be the most effective tools for visual neuroscience. The proper use of Natural Stimuli is to test models based on responses to the  Synthetic  Stimuli,   not to replace them. " Rust NC, Movshon JA.  2005 .    


 As  here  presented this " ENGRAM - READING   MODE " is experiential...  not " a   model"   see Narrative  , page 28   <> 1.0

Laboratory investigations  of the  human mnemonic systems commonly  require  that chins  are immobilized   and  gazes fixed upon relatively impoverished  or  artificial stimuli ..
 " despite the fact  that  primates  actively examine the visual world by rapidly shifting gaze over the elements in a scene. " Rajkai C,  2008 

In the  study of reading skills  " a  methodology  with five lines of text  yields multiple inspection parameters  ."  Pynte J 2006.     Pernet C,  2007   point out  "  possible limitations of foveal stimulus presentation for drawing conclusions about natural reading"   No neural effects of priming appeared for LVF primes,    in line with the RVF preference imposed by the Western writing system.."

Success in the learning  of a set task  may then  be adjudicated  by observing  specifically-linked  responses, the   electronic or  the  behavioral : the  experiences  voluntarily  recalled from  memory  are  seldom  claimed to re-appear  as topographic explicit  visual  images,   as are  these  explicit  engrams .     

Electro-technology,  circa 2010.  " The hemodynamic response tends to be more widespread in space and lasts longer in time as compared with the neuronal activity.  Recursive signals  have been identified  in  single  neurons of invertebrates,  rodents and  primates,  while the f MRI, VEP and other tools  identify  recursive activities at multiple  human   cerebral sites ". Roland and  Gulyas   1997  found that  the recognition  of the same learned  " gross patterns  " increased  the  regional Cortical BF in  the 18 identically located fields which overlapped ,.. activated  during the learning ,  whereas  retrieval  of this material from the storage sites activated only a subset of these  cortical visual areas, and  that  recognition was  associated also  with  hippocampal activity.

" Some may then  ask , ' who cares  about  the localizations  per se ? ' "   Cappa S. F. cappa 2006.. " or cares about  hodology , the white- matter pathways in reading ?."  asks Wandell BA.  2007.

Behavioral  Motor  Responses: Pavlov's concept of the dynamic stereotype was  "imprints of reality".    In its formulation in the 1930s, Pavlov's theory postulated the synthesis of conditioned reflexes, not associative chains of conditioned reflexes.                     

Such  Pavlovian  reflexes indicate  retentions of  specific  mnemonic data ,  yet  " the recursive oscillations  and synchronicities  which enable cognition  are found largely impervious  to behavioral  analysis"  Jack A. 2006  in  the  f MRI  review- issue of  CORTEX )   see entrainment  Topic A 3.   IXP. 


Subjective   Perceptions  of   Autonomous  Recursive Engrams.  
Jahn RG, Dunne BJ.  2007.  Science of the Subjective . " Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history,  ' science'   has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories."  .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
 Acquisition of  Mnemonic  Engrams: Vede et  Crede ?

 Turk-Browne NB, 2005 " For  planned  research  on  visual memory.. it  requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli,  but the resulting " learning " then occurs without intent or awareness  " 

Autonomy .  "Evidence for chunk- learning  can indeed be obtained before any systematic training,  and  thus surely reflect  a pre-existent tendency rather than a learned outcome ." Jiménez L.2007.  Engrams are installed  autonomously ," untrained."


////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////                                                    

PREFACE  7  SUBJECTIVE -  PHENOMENA  Defenders   of   " EXACT- SUBJECTIVISM . "

The contributions of the  empiric " Engram  Reading Mode " to theories of mnemonic networks  derive from  its   unsought  serendipitous  initiations,  and from  data- driven- considerations .   
Grusser, OJ . 1984  " Purkinje was a careful observer who proclaimed and exemplified  the value  of exact subjectivism" :  an  approach  we may strive to emulate  . 
 Singer W, 2001 "Consciousness and the binding problem"

Lehar S 2003  commends " the  primacy of subjective conscious experience. rather than the modeling of  the objective  neurophysiological state of the visual system ... which  supposedly subserves that experience"..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Dehaene S  2007.   "Understanding the extent and the limits of non-conscious processing is an important step on the road to a thorough understanding of the cognitive and cerebral correlates of conscious perception "  

Jahn RG, Dunne BJ. 2007  "Any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined,  measured, and represented...and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion" .                                                                       
Esposito F, 2003  " Data analysis.. on-line  for real-time fMRI... has traditionally been based on hypothesis-driven   processing- methods    Off-line analysis, may be usefully complemented by data-driven approaches ....which can identify brain activity without a priori temporal assumptions."

On  searching  recent  literature  on  visual memory and  the  neuro-mechanics of reading , none  address  as  explicit  these   Recursive  Engrams  of Orthography  or  Scenic –Motion systems , all these   are imperceptible in the  dark and in the  presence of  homotopic on-line images. 

Engrams are  continuously  being  installed  autonomously,  and  re-iterate  autonomously.   Engrams constitute  the  substrates of memory  and   of cognitive  functions  in the  short and in long term ,  specific  to each  modality  as  audio-visual , verbal ,  motor , tactile , olfactory  and  temporally  linked .   The  Visual  Engrams are those most readily  accessable for experiential study.
        
These   Un-sought  Phenomena were  encountered as  off-line  Images ,  2000-2008.

2000 July 22         Recursive  Lexical- Engrams 
2000  Oct 16         Autonomous Lexors
2001  Feb 13         Engrams  Triggered by Flicker
2001  Sept 8          Spatial- Motion- Memory Engrams 
2003⎯2008          Lexical Archives.."  Shifting Engram Spread-sheets"!.                                                                                    


 Bartels A.  Zeki S. 2005    "  An opportunistic approach.. can  provide a   powerful environment...  to reveal connectivity in  vivo."                                                                      
                                          


PREFACE  8 )           AUTONOMY  and   DEFAULT  SYSTEMS 


Schacter DL.2011  "  problem-solving simulations may allow default network regions to be coactive with task-positive network regions without suppressing the contribution of either network. "  see   AVB  ....IXP........
          IXP  20II   Default network regions act unsupervised during SWS non-REM  Sleep              periods,   and  also  support  the  task-related efforts   in vigilance , and act peremptorily in emergencies.  

                                           MAIN   TEXT 


                                   "  Recurrent  Dynamics  in  Excitable Media." 
                            The  AUTONOMOUS  VISUAL  BRAIN  .     AVB.


AVB   Part one:    The BZ  and   geometric  patterns of spontaneous brain activity :   
               the innate  antecedents  of  Semantic Engrams                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 


 AVB    Part two :     Explicit  Recursive  Semantic Engrams : 
          Autonomous substrates which  enable cognition,  navigation and  literacy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 


 AVB  Part three .  Related  Essays , abstracts  and speculations .   
                               Entoptic  and  Mnemonic  Images  witnessed  1962-2011 .  
                              Orthograms  .Turing  Structures.  Solitons ?  .  
    
   **********************************************************************      
                             
                                 RECURSIVE   ENGRAMS    AVB    Part two:                                       



    The Engram  Reading – Paradigm   is consistent  with current  findings on fluent-  reading  skills ,  and advances  theories on facsimile   memory, longevities   and retrieval 
. Innumerable  mnemonic  engrams  are  recorded  daily;   autonomously and continuously , with  and  without  conscious attention.  The  lexical engrams  thereafter witnessed in conducive state dependencies  are  verbatim et literatim  archives which  thus  enabling  Literacy  and  Scholarship.
                                        
THESIS

Literacy is  attained  by  cognitive  access   to Archived   Lexical Engrams.


  in 1904 by Richard Semon defined the engram  as a "stimulus impression ...  which could be reactivated by the recurrence of  the energetic conditions which had  ruled at the generation of the engram."   This  addresses the  current- issues regarding  the  means  for obtaining  a specific mnemonic- recall.  Concatenation ? 
 
Abouzeid A,   Ermentrout B. 2009    "  .Effective connectivity between cells may  arise in the form of  correlations between  . noisy input streams  . However, the inputs to real neurons may often be more accurately described as barrages of synaptic noise."           


  LEXICAL  Functioning  Requires : 
* Incremental  isometric embedding  of textons  -- while  reading  a page of text.  
* High-dimensional data --   with  TEXTS  retained  verbatim  et  literatim .    
*Connected- neighborhoods  --   for the  multiple  Engrams,   and retrievals .      


   LITERACY   Requires :  Cognitive  access  to  Multiple  Archived   Engrams. 
The explicit  manifestations of  Autonomous  Lexical   Engrams  are  here  documented,   and  presented  for appraisal  and further validation  of  these  empiric phenomena :
  The Texton – Lexor  tempero-spatial  connections    and  intact  Engram  consolidations .   Literacy is  attained  by  cognitive  access  to  archived Engrams.      
   
  
                           
Steps  in  LEXICAL-  PROCESSING


     On first confronting a page of text its overall  image  is promptly captured  in toto  as  a  visual textured  gestalt . 
  Within a single  tempero-spatial event  the   Oculomotor and Vestibular functions  secure  the  topographic - layout of  the  off-line   Gestating –Engram .    Computed with precision by  Sensori-motor Circuits ,  the layout and  details are  reconfirmed as  each saccade  and  new  fixation  occurs,   an accomplishment verified when witnessing the  explicit engram ( MAP) displayed  thereafter  in conducive state dependencies  . qv.  


     As scanning progresses , textual  details  are furnished  by three  concentric  "lexors ".  These  afferent- agents have  demonstrated  three   magnitudes  of  spatial- capacities.  ,
Their  specific angular- subtenses  match   the  aligned- clusters  of  letters ,     a word or  a   phrase :  the  lexical  textons of Julesz  . 
       Pulvermüller F  2009 " The full activation or ignition  of specifically distributed binding- circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing." (  see  intact visual- engram  recursions,)      
  The  performance  of  fluent- reading  on-line , with the  retention and  the  recall of  lexical form  and  semantic  content,    are  attributable  to   access  with  the  Lexical   Engrams;   not  as  overt perceptions  but covertly to  cognition .   
  No perceptual transparency is  thus  experienced between  the  Explicit On-line  data   and the implicit  off-line  data-file ;    however  lexical engrams  are retained intact,   compacted,  and remain in chronological order .       "Associative learning  is governed by multiple "engrams " and by temporal dynamic interactions among these engrams and other circuit elements. " Hunt PS, 2007         


************************************************************************
                                              
                                                ATTENTION  ?


Turk-Browne  2005
     " It requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli, but the resulting learning then occurs without intent or awareness."
 Pulvermuller F 2006.    "It is increasingly understood  that lexical, semantic,  and syntactic information can be processed by the central nervous system  outside the focus of attention in a largely automatic manner" 

Jensen O, 2006   portrays  a cortical multi-item working memory buffer " in which theta and gamma oscillations  have an important role…in recall ." 
Pulvermüller F  2009 " The full activation  or  ignition  of specifically distributed binding- circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing."  (  see Pelli   2006 . )      
        The  overt,  subjective   manifestations of  recursive semantic engrams  are attributed  solely to the  activities  in  the neocortex;   the  reciprocations  and the  roles  of the hippocampus  in memory  storage and its  retrievals  are  detectable  by electro-encephalography .  
  Schacter DL. 2009 " The resting- brain  is associated with significant intrinsic activity fluctuations." 

                                           
The  RESTLESS BRAIN         


      It may be contended  that during life  the brain is  never at rest.  Dreaming in some phases of sleep , and in other phases  consolidating  or"  filing- away " the very specific  in-puts (engrams) of the previous day's experiences.  The  autonomous processes  which functioned  during the day thus continue overnight.   


       During every visual experience specific memory traces are  continuously  being  installed  autonomously.. and  re-iterate ..". regardless of" attention ".  Their  autonomous  interlocked functions  might be  " default" operations   as  termed  in  fMRI attributions .
" Lexical, semantic and syntactic information can be processed by the central nervous system outside the focus of attention in a largely automatic manner."  Pulvermuller F 2006  
  The  Recursive  Visual   Engrams  are  the  covert   substrates  which   serve  Navigation and Cognition ,  and which  support Literacy ......  verbatim et literatim . IXP   
 " The verification of  prolonged stable  persistence of a  visual  pattern  after brief  priming,  and with  recall  in  high-fidelity  extends the horizons  for  theorists  and experimentalists." Rolls ET  2005       
"  High-fidelity perceptual long-term memory revisited.. across time intervals of 24 hr -and confirmed. "  Magnussen S,.2003                            
 "The ecological relevance of sleep: the trade-off  ( ?  )   between sleep, memory and energy conservation."   Roth TC ,.2010. 



The   MNEMONIC   ENGRAM   FUNCTIONS   here   ADDRESSED : .


Lexor  activity ... When witnessed  in  limbo status   , an engram  text  is  deemed  to be   "under active lexor  surveillance  " in several dynamic  perceptions :    when  horizontally  flickering  letters are  seen within a  one degree lexor , or when  an individual word stands out , or  when  a one –third   central segment of a 30 degree   line  is distinguished  by increased  contrast  and/or  a  granular  "streaming  " to the left :     these  incidents are  presumptive  evidence  of   Lexor-  Activity.  


* Acquisition  of  engrams  as autonomous ?
Access  to   perception of   covert engrams  . These recursive  lexical  engrams  can be  consciously  intercepted  in three  state  dependencies,    i) in  an  umbral  view,   ii)  with imposed  flicker,  and  iii)   spontaneously,  while  awakening.
*Longevity?  the re-enforcement  or attenuation  of  the   primary  engrams 
*Deployment ?  conjunctions of two  systems ,  the orthographic   and  motion- memory. 
*Spatial and temporal  parity ?    mandatory for  motion memory systems. 
*Symbolic  memory system  (see B 5,  reading  rates :. Compare  RSVP  mode .) 
*Cortical maps..  Engrams   share  a common foveal processor   (the Fixator ).
*Shifting  of  texts   across the Cortical fovea  is witnessed  during  lp * limbo 
*Compaction:  Demonstrable  high density storage , verbatim,  of orthographic  memory  
*   Consolidations"  :   are  specific items  prioritized for  review  during  unsupervised ?    .   periods  of  sleep.  Is there a weighting ... or is it  a waiting  system ?   


*  "  Item and Order  in working memories"   Chronological ?
                "Maintenance of multiple memory items by temporal segmentation." Jensen O.           "Sleep enforces the temporal- order in memory."    2007  Drosopoulos S                     "  Competitive Queuing;" Grossberg S  2007.  


************************************************************************   
          

The  Tasks  and  METRICS  in  this  Lexication Study


      Following  a reading  at  45  cms. of   the  Standard in- puts  of  Times Roman pt 12  in print- layout and   viewed  at  75% ,  the  cortically lexicable - inputs  from  the  retina   derive   from  the  1 cm  area between the optic nerve heads,  a  dimension which  can be  verified  entoptically while witnessing  an  engram. 
     The consequent  primary   Lexical  Engrams are also  confined  within   ~  30  degrees  of visual- subtense,  in  parity with their  on-line source . 
In web- layout however  ,the same text viewed  at 45 cms  may   require  five , not three , saccades;  each fixations to   encompasses  the    ~ 10 degrees   saccades .   At one  meter  distance  reading distance , three  saccades suffice .
     Thus  the  "  Cortical Lexical  Slate  " of  30 degrees subtense  required  3 saccades 
The  ~  1 cm  interval between the optic nerve heads can be  verifiable  entoptically. ( see  Entoptic Visualization and Impletion of the Blind Spot Arch Ophthal⎯Vol. 79, May 1968.  IXP)  

                                                     
 LEXORS                 
                   These   Lexical-  sensors  appear  of  three Magnitudes : 
      Receptive  fields  qua  Angular Subtenses .


  The   lexor   of  ~    one degree  captures  one grapheme   ~ 3 letters  in  refined  lp*  
 The Lexor  < 5  degrees , captures  words ~   10 letters 
 The Linear LEXOR  of  10 x 3  degrees  captures  a phrase  > 5  words  >  20  letter strings.   In normal horizontal linear  reading , letter  recognitions  are seen in  the one  degree , and  5  degree spans.   An  oculomotor-  shift  commonly   spans   10 -- 8 degrees  of  a  30 degree  wide text, capturing  the morphemes .
 
 Fluent  Reading .  The   on-line  performance  of  fluent  reading  with the retention and recall of  lexical  and  semantic  content... is deemed contingent upon  the  archived , cognitively  accessable ,  off-line  Lexical- Engrams 

The  Mechanics . When  Reading-on-line, the Retinal  Sensors are  shifted by oculomotion across  the  stationary text  target,  as is  well  known . 
   However ,   Off-line , in the absence of oculomotion ,  it is the   Engram MAP  itself  which  shifts  bodily  for  engagements with  the  fixed  Sensors,  the engram  thus  presents   itself for  inspection  by the  stationary, cortical  concentric -lexors.   This strategic conjugation  thus  compares with the  RSVP  mode.    Lexication off-line   thus  reverses   the trajectories performed  during   exogenic- on-line ,  paged-reading.
Lexication of engrams  off-line   (consolidations )   may thus   exceed the rates of on-line reading .. equaling the RSVP  .   Where  then  is the off-line  " bottle-neck "?  
  Legge   GE,2007 presents  " The case for the visual span as a sensory bottleneck in reading  "[. see   Oct 26 2000  . Narrative . WPM .]


                                 The  Lexical  Engrams as  archived  in the brain ,              
                                 constitute  the  verbatim  substrates of  Literacy.     


 In 1904  Richard Semon had coined the term Engram ,  and defined  the  engram  as a " 'stimulus impression' which could be   reactivated   by the recurrence of  the energetic conditions which ruled at the generation of the engram ."  
       Physiological  memory-traces  generally  remain " implicit."   Semantic  Engrams are not perceptible in the dark , nor  in  the  presence of  homotopic on-line images.  they  may  however  be  rendered  explicit  in  three  state-dependent conditions  as  is here  asserted , and  as  documented since 2000.     Explicit perceptions  of lexical engrams  seem  un-recognized elsewhere,  either anecdotally or in the literature:  see Prefaces.


                                                           TERMS
                            
       The   LEXIC - ELEMENTS;    and  the   LEXICATORY - FUNCTIONS
                                                  

Engram:  an autonomous  memory- trace  of a congruent  event, or of one  page of text.
Recursive Engrams  prove  accessible  for autonomous processing,  and consolidations.        

Textures:  Extended  fields include  textiles, wall papers, microscopic histology. The print  on this present page  viewed in dim light, might appear as texture.

Textons: "The term  visual-texton  designates  the  perceptually- separable elements  as viewed in  any textured  patterned field." (Julesz  B  1981)   Dimensions of textons vary  within one field of  any arbitrary scene, and  in a printed  text.  

Lexors:
 Autonomous cellular agents , in  status  limbo  match the textons  in  engrams:  These sensors, the  lexical  detectors , operate in synchronized temporal  circuits, which are also spatially-concentric.

Limbo: A  tag for the  Hypnopompic states : the  transitional - mental -status experienced briefly in the border-land  conditions between- sleep- and- wake.

Spontaneity   implies  neural  activities  not  imposed  by the  investigator,  nor deliberately initiated  by  the  witness ? .
      Autonomy  ?    The  biologic  priorities  and  properties  of   the  innate  and  fundamental neural  processes  are   evident  also  in   invertebrate species .                                                   
Innumerable  Visual  Mnemonic Engrams  are  installed  daily;  "encoded"  autonomously  and are   captured regardless of  conscious attention.
  Networks  . Barch DM . 2009  describes " default  activities   present when  subjects are   'resting - in – fMRI scanners' .  The brain's'  default network '.. .a set of regions characterized by de-creased neural activity during goal-oriented tasks, has generated a significant amount of interest, as well as controversy." 
         In the brain  more  activities  may be  autonomous and  sustained  by " default"   than  are the activities  initiated  intentionally and pro-actively ; .IXP   
 However,"   problem-solving simulations may allow default network regions to be coactive with task-positive network regions without suppressing the contribution of either network. "  Schacter DL.2011     SEE  AVB  ............

************************************************************************
      
  The subjective manifestations  of  explicit  Lexical  Engrams, of  Textons  and  Lexors   are supportive  of current  theories  on   reading skills and on  literacy .
   The  overt subjective -  manifestations of  recursive semantic engrams  are  here attributed  solely to the  activities  in  the neocortex ;  while  the  reciprocating  roles  of the hippocampus  in memory  storage and its  retrieval  are  polymodal ,  and in multiple  cerebral  locations  elsewhere ; as  detectable  by electroencephalography.       


//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////************************************************************************




                                    These  "  Concepts "   follow  the  Main Text 


                                      ITEMS   ONE   through  THIRTEEN     
                                              
         ><>ONE              RESPECTING    " EXACT- SUBJECTIVISM "                                                              


       ><>TWO             IN-TUITION :  Self-teaching   . refs   to B 5. sections  .
    
       ><>THREE          CHANCE  ENCOUNTERS  &  Serendipity.                                  
                                    Rebounding   VI Activity ;  Recursive Visual Engrams                
    
       ><>FOUR            Reciprocal   Scanning  processes :   The  Trajectories                                                            


        ><>FIVE              The  Fixed  Reading Rate .  Pelli and  Tillman  2007    
                                    Reading  Rates  on –line   are less than  Lexications   off-line.  


       ><>SIX                 Summations  in   the Engram  Reading Mode    
                                   Three  concentric,  synchronized , lexical sensors 


       ><>SEVEN           The foveal confluence  SINGULARITY  in the  visual cortex                  
                                           Singularity of  the " Grand Vizier's  axial  view ". 


        ><>EIGHT           VERIFYING   the   up - drifting  of  cortical  lexical   Engrams          
                                    The  familiar  RSVP  mode   is  evident  in  off-line lexication   .   


        ><>NINE                     *****    NEURAL   BINNING   ******* 


         ><>TEN                 ACME:  The  Archived  Compacted   Multiple - Engram.                                   
                                       Spreadsheet....  repositories  with   Image –Compression.                                 


         ><>ELEVEN         HOLOGRAPHY  and    TURING  PATTERNS 

         ><>TWELVE               "  DEFAULT "  STATES    ?
                                                SPECULATIONS.     Sept. 21, 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                               Formations in excitable media.          
          
       ><>   THIRTEEN                 BIOLOGICAL   SOLITONS    ?                                                                                                                                                                                                                       


////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////