Visual Memory Research
The Genesis of Mnemonic Visual Systems 
Recurrent Dynamics in Excitable Media

Topic A3: Synesthesia and Synkinesia: Autonomous Vertical Ocular Saccades

Auditory  Patterns in Working Memory 

       “  Language and music can be studied in parallel to address questions of neural specificity in cognitive processing,  prosody and music may overlap in the processes used to maintain auditory patterns in working memory.”   Patel AD, 1998

Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning. Peterson DA, .2007  
 
“The capacity to classify sequences from recursive, centre-embedded grammars is not uniquely human’’. Recursive  Syntactic Pattern learning by Songbirds. Gentner TQ, 2006  

Seemingly simple forms of associative learning are governed by multiple "engrams"  and by temporally dynamic interactions among these engrams and other circuit elements Synapses, circuits, and the ontogeny of learning. Hunt PS,   2007.  

Engrams:  semantic patterns  explicitly  visible in  state-dependent conditions    ( these  data structures  stored  in attractor networks  are  accessible  for entrainments  and       covert,   recursive autonomous processing   ..IXP 
                                              
Fusion of visual and auditory stimuli during saccades: a Bayesian explanation for perisaccadic distortions.  During fixation, vision dominates and spatially "captures" the auditory stimulus  Morrone MC.2007          

Listening  to percussive  music with  both  eyes closed  and with  a  digital  downward-traction applied  to  immobilize  both  upper lids,  rhythmic  vertical ocular  saccades may occur ,  as I first noted in 1985. When the eyes are open, the originally protective reflex up-gaze  is largely  inhibited in the interests of stable vision. The rhythmic vertical-entrainment to percussion and to pitch as  experienced with closed lids in  downward traction  represents an atavistic responses to a possible  threat  to the eyes .           
     
Music engenders ocular choreography, and audio-afferents can also modify entoptic visual  images. 
 
Zeki in 1996 described "a direct demonstration (a V5 connection) of functional specialization within motion-related visual and auditory cortex of the human brain.

" What is the origin of physiological rhythms ?     How do the rhythms interact with each other and the external environment?    Glass L. 2010                                             

Audio-oculomotor Synkinesis:  A  reflex elevation of the globes synchronizes with percussive sounds  and also  to elevations of pitch,  these effects are clearly visible to any on-looker,  and are  palpable to the subject whose fingers are maintaining the downward lid traction  This reflex response can be demonstrated simply by rhythmic hand-clapping, or by  prosodic speech ;  the most favorable subjects to demonstrate this phenomenon are dancers and musicians.

Percussive music:  the "onset" is the most driving stimulus; a series of staccato stimuli progressively elevate the globe within the mechanical limits of the sensori-motor system, reaching a tetanic contraction at  fast- rates.   .. Responses may fatigue within a minute, yet after only three bars  can be entrained by a rhythmic score, and may then react in anticipation of the anticipated beat... even if this is with-held.    
 
In a brief silence, an elevated ocular posture may be sustained briefly pending the next positive stimulus; otherwise the globe will slowly descend to its neutral stance.    
         
This  myotonic  activity is not volitional, but it is a permissive response.  EOG tracings have shown that oculomotor upstrokes are active, ballistic, myogenic; while the down- strokes usually represent an elastic restitutional return to a neutral horizon. This efferent ocular reflex response to sound is derived from the archaic startle response, initially the protective combination of blink and up-gaze.
 
An attitudinal gaze, the changing pitch of a sound tends to an elevation or depression not only of the gaze but also of bodily posture.    A change in audio- volume may promote either advance or retreat along the personal Z axis, with innate  extension or flexion of the limbs.

Natural hand gestures, body language and choreography appear to demonstrate the  innate more than any learned- responses to patterns of sound.  

Triggers  for   the  Atavistic Vertical  Saccades 
                                    
Normally, a  purposeful  up-gaze is accompanied  by bilateral  elevation of the lids , synchronously  programmed  .  But with downward  traction   made on  both  upper lids , thwarting lid elevation,  a hyper responsive status in the  integrated  vertical –motion  generator  fires upon receipt  of  an uninhibited  audio signal .  Traction of  only one  lid ( both eyes being closed )  proves ineffective for this  reflexive  ocular audio-synkinesis. Entrained  to selected  music dynamics ,  the atavistic vertical  saccades  replicate a sequence or a  series ,  stepped staccato  impacts , or  smooth glissades , dependent  upon the  pacing of the audio  stimuli.

Comment       The attribution  of  a bottom-up   reflex  ocular  elevations  to  a  startle –response -origin  is  plausible, generalized   when  these vertical  saccades  are  incited endogenously  by  silent   private speech …  .  However  ,  atavistic ..preserved   roles  for excitatory  responses  may  provide an important mechanism in the formation of synapses  and activity in neuronal networks.  
           
Autonomous Vertical   Ocular Saccades are Entrained  by Music, and also by Speech.

State-dependency .  With  both eyes closed , and  with  a digital  downward traction applied to  both  upper lids,   patterns of  acoustic  sounds can induce  vertical  saccades.  tag  .     With patterned sound , in the absence of visual  input,  oculomotor entrainments  demonstrate  the synchronous and modulated vertical   saccades , an epi-phenomenon  :   at  times attaining  5 Hz...

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Audio-motor  synchrony  and entrainments  can  be evaluated by  finger- tapping and by   EEG studies:  Will U, Berg E .2007 . “ The tonic 2 Hz. maximum corresponds to the optimal tempo identified in listening,  tapping  synchronization, and event-interval discrimination experiments.
    
Entrainment to periodic acoustic stimuli… demonstrates … time coupling between rhythmic sensory input and motor output.”  Natural hand gestures, body language,  and music performance itself demonstrate both the  biological  innate resonances  and the acculturated  responses to patterns of sound ,  as conveyed in varied regional dance- styles;  entrainment  also is heard  in group applause 
  
Jackendoff  R 2005 notes  the “ specific way that tonal pitch contours can evoke patterns of posture and gesture”.  It  may be observed that  a  changing  pitch tends to an elevation or a depression  not only of  bodily posture,  but  occurs  also  as the vector of  the  autonomous vertical ocular saccades as here  described ( tag  ).
     
Empirical  evidence of  oculomotor entrainment to  patterned sounds is simple but is  state-dependent,  both for  its  installation  and  for the tactile experiences of these recursive motions ,  which  are  palpable for  the participant,  and visible to an observer . This autonomous  motor activity matches the  acoustic dynamics of speech and of  musical input .    
  “ Musical  scale properties are automatically processed in the human auditory cortex . The relational properties of the musical scale are quickly and automatically extracted by the auditory cortex… even before the intervention of focused attention”,  Brattico E  2006.  *Entrainment to  periodic acoustic stimuli…  demonstrates  autonomous … time coupling between rhythmic sensory input and vertical ocular  motion . (tag  ).   , 
**
.     With patterned sound, in the absence of visual input, in status   the oculomotor entrainments  demonstrate  an epi-phenomenon ;   the synchronous and modulated saccades are vertical  only , and exceed  the  2 Hz. optimal  fingering  tempo , at times attaining  5 Hz. .  Paganini, it said, could finger at 12Hz.

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 Iwasaki T, Zheng M  2006. “Sensory feedback mechanism underlie entrainment of a central pattern generator to mechanical resonance.   Robust entrainment results from - coupling of a lightly damped- mechanical- system with the reciprocal inhibition oscillator. The six pairs of ocular muscles represent the most versatile of all human complex motor coupling systems, enabling precise conjugate binocular oculo-versions over 100 degrees to a tolerance of a few seconds of arc, controlled by afferent feedback.” 
     
Furthermore, without the developmental acquisition of sequential and dedicated automata, including place-saver- devices, neither the unified perception of a scanned field nor the acquisition of literacy would be attained. 
        
In response to abrupt or shifting locations of environmental noises, reflex oculomotion acts autonomously to direct the visual attention appropriately.  Patterned audio-input, if possible being of semantic significance, attracts high-level attention and exploratory oculomotion to serve vision. 
  
If a novel audio-input is not on mental- file as a known pattern, its distinguishing from random noise turns upon a third iteration, which then marks an event of potential significance.


Goodale MA.1998   “The dorsal 'action' stream projecting from primary visual cortex to the posterior parietal cortex provides flexible control of more ancient subcortical visuomotor modules for the production of motor acts, generally ON-FILE protective ”    


These motor acts may include this quasi- physiological epi--phenomenon, autonomous vertical saccades.
 simple linear readouts from generic neural microcircuits(engrams  )   that send feedback of their activity  to the circuit...., can be trained   (entrained , polymodal   e, g  audio/visual/tactile) ..   using identical learning mechanisms to perform quite separate tasks of decision- making,   and generation of subsequent motor commands.    See   A   3




                                 Ancient  Subcortical  Visuomotor  Modules


… The  eye ball is  protected  by several innate reflexes , which  include a  startle  reflex with  its  simple  lid – closure.     A  forced  closure of  the lid  may be accompanied by an ocular  up-gaze:    Bell’s phenomenon, 1823.  


            The following  autonomous  ocular  motions are protective   


 Spontaneous  Blinking Rates  maintain the pre-corneal  tear film.  “In  a stable environment these  blinks  can  average ~ 15  / minute, every 3 s., with  durations of  300 msec :  a  stereotyped dynamic . (Adler 1992 ).     “ Spontaneous blinks produce small eye movements directed down and inward,   whereas slow or forced blinks were associated with delayed upward eye rotations . (i.e. a Bell's phenomenon’   Iwasaki M  2005.


 The Reflex  Eye-Blink .  Percussive sounds  commonly  elicit a blink response , an  audio-motor reflex .  Simple  blink responses, widely studied with Pavlovian  conditioning ,  are reported with varied  sensory  modalities  in many species  and  in contexts  including psychopathology  and pharmaceutical  interventions  . 


 Classical  Blink -Conditioning:. (  Cason 1922 ) 
   Bangert M, 2006  “ The  eye- blink- reflexes trained  to  patterned sound  are  responsive to absent tones in  repetitive  stimuli.” 
  This  indicates  an  entrainment  involving  branches  of  the eighth and seventh cranial  nerves,  and  of other somatic , motor systems.   Entrainments subsist upon  memory traces,   formulated  as engrams.
, Freeman JH  .2007 the medial auditory thalamic nuclei and their projections to the pontine  nuclei are components of the auditory conditioned stimulus pathway in eye blink conditioning.  
   Bell’s phenomenon , 1823    This  reflex elevation of the globes is induced with the eyes closed in primary position  and with  pressure applied to prevent levator lid  action.     Takagi  M,  1992  noted:  “Prolonged eyelid closure.… accompanied by tonic eye elevation”.. replicating  an  ancient excitatory  response” 


. Iwasaki M   2005   EEG) potentials : Spontaneous blinks produced small eye movements directed down and inward, whereas slow or forced blinks were associated with delayed upward eye rotations (i.e. Bell's phenomenon)




In the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks , evolutionary- preserved roles  for ancient  excitatory  responses  may  provide important mechanisms . In the following ‘perverse autonomous  ocular  motions’  here  detailed  ,  these actions  are  not  directly related to semantic  vision  processing  , but to  pattern  per se.     “The capacity to classify sequences from recursive, centre-embedded grammars is not uniquely human’’. Recursive  syntactic  pattern  learning by  Songbirds. Gentner TQ, 2006   
  




    3          Music and Speech Patterns entrain Vertical   Ocular  Saccades  


                         Speech and music … travel   upon a  common path   …..
   


Vertical  ocular  saccades can be entrained by imposed  percussive sounds ,  by
 simple rhythmic  hand-clapping and  by the patterns heard  in music and in normal  human speech 


***   “ Simple forms of associative learning  (entrainments )  are governed by multiple "engrams" and by temporally dynamic interactions among these engrams and other circuit elements”   Hunt PS  2007.



State-dependency .  An experience of these  audio motor-entrainments is evident only with  both  eyes closed , and downward traction of the upper lids … tag …  These  motor acts  are  a an  entrainment to periodic acoustic stimuli ,  the   time coupling between rhythmic  audio –input  and vertical ocular  saccades  constitutes  a physiological  epi-phenomenon,  generally inhibited ,


*4     The  Acoustic  Experiences  which  can  incite Vertical Saccades  include:
                 

1)      Hearing  Music  with  both  eyes closed , and  with  a digital  downward traction applied  to the upper lids  ( tag ; ),   
    
2 )    Listening,  in status  , to  the speech  of  others.   The  consonants and  the  prosody in the delivered speech  patterns  can  trigger  elevations of the globes,  modulated  in  frequency and amplitude; 


3)    Speaking  aloud:  Saccadic synkinesis  is again  present  when the words are self- articulated ;    
 
4)    Whispering  the same phrase..   ( at  20 dB  ? )
  
5)     Hummed Speech,   although  lacking  in expletives , mode  is effective . see  “Processing Prosodic Boundaries in Natural and Hummed Speech.  Ischebeck AK,2007,  an fMRI Study.                                                                                                 
  
6 )      Reminiscing  .. silently re-thinking  : Articulating  a phrase or a  brief  comment , and  then  mentally  re-iterating the  identical phrase  in  silence can  also  replicate the previous patterned – excursions of the globes   While these  “ virtual – audio stimuli ” continue  in silence , the  oculomotor sequences  may be videotaped,  or recorded  by  EOG .   Responses for up to 30 seconds  may  accompany some  ten iterations  when  made  using  a three or four-seconds- silent- phrase, as this  small packet is recapitulated  in “private speech”. 
 
7)    Inventing  a Novel  Phrase ..  Mentation   .. thinking-up  but not expressing a  novel  phrase does not  immediately  trigger this oculomotor response ,  but after several  iterations an oculomotor entrainment may continue for many cycles ;  
 Silent  Steady Counting by  seconds, or   packaged  as  phrased  triplets >   15 packets .   With  silent  recitation of the alphabet ,  phonemes up to  twenty  gives inconsistent results  .


That  unvoiced , private  speech  can also   generate this    autonomous epi-phenomenon seemed  remarkable .


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“ PRIVATE   SPEECH ”. . Girbau  D.  2007 . 


 Reading  and Prosody .  When silently reading most people seem unaware of their own  non-articulated  inner voice in  as  audio- background,  yet most recognize this when it is  brought to their attention .  When  reading , the ocular muscles execute  ~  8  degree- subtense  saccades  at ~ 4 Hz. , arguably  by voluntary, top-down  goal oriented, target directed,  horizontal  saccades.   
    
 Girbau   D  2007  “ Neurocognitive  research analyzes the neural activity of individuals during a variety of task settings, including spontaneous and instructed  overt and inner private speech use,   subvocal  verbalizations,  and overt and silent reading”.  


      As witnessed  in the  lid -traction  epi-phenomenon   , the  saccades are not goal oriented  nor  target directed ,  and  the motions   are  strictly vertical . These saccades respond autonomously  to detailed dynamics within  each specific  phrase  while hearing music  or  speech,   also  by speaking,  and  more surprising, during the silent re-thinking of the earlier phrase matched  vertical saccades arise,  apparently programmed  by  the  sensitized  CGS ‘s   audio –motor- engram .  .
     Zeki  in  1996  dealing  with prosody, described  “ A direct demonstration (  a V5 connection) of functional specialization  within the  motion- related and the auditory cortex of the human brain”.                .    Cornelissen P  2006 :  “ With  magneto-encephalography data  obtained during silent reading,  the  face motor- cortex and the cerebellum, typically associated with speech production, emerged as densely connected components of the network”  :  This  finding  implicates  a  ‘Covert   Entrainment’  initiated  in f the  Private Speech  Mode  . PSM . ( see     6.   7  above.  
(  In  PSM,   the  prosody   translates  into  a  “ baton effect”…witnessed  with   covert vertical saccades )


     Entrainments,  it is suggested,  are  driven  by recursive  engrams of limited longevities.


 The explicit  visual   motion-memory  engrams ( SMME )  as witnessed  have  iterated in STM  for up to  120 seconds,   supposedly as  recursions  between  hippocampal  buffer- status  and multiple  effector and sensory  cortical  destinations,.


                   “LEARNING”.     Synapses, circuits, and the ontogeny of learning.


Hunt PS,   2007.  Seemingly simple forms of associative learning are governed by multiple "engrams"  and by temporally dynamic interactions among these engrams and other circuit elements Synapses, circuits, and the ontogeny of learning.
Peterson DA, Thaut MH  .2007.   Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning. ‘  
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                                        RECURSIVE   ENGRAMS 


         Visual  sensory  entrainments  establish  explicit off-line recursive  engrams                     
       Lexical - Visual Engrams ☹   and  afferent  Visual- Motion  ☹Engrams.


.      Explicit visibility of  covert visual  engrams is obtainable with closed  illuminated eyes  ( ☹  tag ) ,  witnessed explicitly as idiosyncratic  images  with  verbal specificity   


The Visual Motion-Engrams  ☹   may be installed/ encoded  in low resolution at  3 ~ 8  Hz ,  . These  autonomous, achromatic primary- stereo – engrams  are  packaged in 3 -30  sec.  blocks which  reiterate  and attenuate  over  a visible longevity of  some 120 seconds ...see C 7. 
“An internal clock for predictive saccades is established identically by auditory or visual information”, Joiner WM,  . 2007   and  linked to recursive  motion  memory traces /  engrams  C7    and   “ For subsequent deployment in cognitive judgments:…  a  motion  memory system must   necessarily be maintained   …and  with some degree of accuracy”.   Blake R .1997         
( The Circadial Lexical Engrams, details see B5. ) 


Both  these explicit  visual  engrams ☹  with   “Idiosyncratic and Verbal Specificity” compare in  performance with  the  implicit   Perceptual Representation  Systems  described by  Tulving and Schacter, 1990,   Priming and  Human Memory Systems. 
The  autonomous  saccadic- audio –entrainments  ( tag,  )  posit  another  recursive  motor-memory engram system,  comparable  but briefer than  those of  the autonomous Visual Motion-Engrams ☹  visual engrams wherein  each  system retains  highly specific contents,  with   engram  manifestations in  state- dependencies  ,   C7, motion,  B5 , graphics,  IXP 


Senkowski 2007 reports  “ Temporal synchrony of the uni-sensory components of an audio-visual stimulus  with audio-visual stimuli presented with  onset asynchronies ranging from -125 to +125 ms.”  Acoustic  experiences  which  entrain  these   (atavistic  ) vertical saccades   may conform to similar temporal parameters , 4 Hz . 


3)       Speech  Patterns.  The prosody, stresses and percussive consonants are   reflected “verbatim”  by  vertical ocular saccades.  These vertical oscillations  are synchronized  with  an  on-line phrase , whether this  is  delivered  by others or is  self-articulated ,  voiced or  unvoiced  as whispering,  and  even  while silently  re-thinking  this  same now entrained phrase . 
4)    Silently  thinking a novel  phrase can also  generate this     response , but only after  a few  mental  repetitions  of the  novel phrase .  “  With  magneto-encephalography data. obtained during silent reading,  the  face motor- cortex and the cerebellum, typically associated with speech production, emerged as densely connected components of the network”  Cornelissen P  2006  
A  treatise  on facial muscles  and “ habit   responses” appears in  “ Expression of  Emotion in  Man and  Animals”;   Charles Darwin 1806.     

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The  Extrinsic Eye Muscles

For each globe there are  six anatomically paired  extraocular  muscles.  In various  gazes  a muscle  may function  cooperatively  as agonist  or antagonist  .  Intrinsic  efferent and  afferent innervation  is  via  the  III, IV  and VI cranial  nerves,  with  modalities of  extrinsic  sensory input  also  via  visual  II   and auditory VIII,  vestibular  proprioceptive,   facial VII, …. and  a   V trigeminal motor  connection .  

 Buisseret P 1985 .  “ Extrinsic eye muscles respond to both  proprioceptive and visual impulses” ( and  also to audio and mentation  signals ) . The afferent pathway for the proprioceptive sensory system initially accompanies the motor fibers of oculomotor III, IV, and VI nerves   Proprioceptive   afferent signals also project on two cerebellar cortex regions, one in the VI th and VII th lobules of the posterior lobe vermis.”
 
Joiner WM,  . 2007 ,  “An internal clock for  predictive saccades is established  identically by auditory or visual information”,      

 Blake R .1997  “a  motion  memory system for subsequent deployment in cognitive judgments: must  necessarily be maintained  …and  with some degree of accuracy” The  recursive  motion  memory traces / visual   engrams  SMME  (  C7 )  approach   these criteria . with  a fair degree of  idiosyncratic specificity.


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The Highly  Idiosyncratic and Verbal Specificity of  the autonomous  Audio   phenomenon ,  as of the Visual  engrams ☹

Luce PA, 1998   Many theories of spoken word recognition  assume that lexical items are stored in memory as abstract representations . However( Goldinger, 1996  ) ..‘representations of spoken words in memory are veridical exemplars that encode specific information, such as characteristics of the talker's voice’ 

The  vertical  oculomotor   saccades entrained to speech in status     are experienced  as precisely modulated  excursions , finely tuned  to the dominant  percussive  patterns in  music, driven also by prosody and phrasing  patterns  of normal  articulated speech , and as was detected in  2007,  responsive  also  to the unvoiced,  mental  iterations  of those same phrases.  Indeed . after several cycles,  there   may be    response to  a  novel  and previously  unuttered  phrase  .IXP . 2007

Bradlow AR,1999    Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken words showed an advantage in recognition memory for words repeated by the same talker and at same speaking rate( but no advantage occurred for the amplitude condition.).

Will U, Berg E  .2007  Entrainment to Periodic Acoustic Stimuli. The synchronization responses in the delta range may form part of the neurophysiological processes underlying time-coupling between rhythmic sensory input and motor output. 

Isa T, Kobayashi Y  2004   'Express saccades'… visual input appears to be transformed into motor output via a 'short-loop', brainstem-mediated pathway      
                                        
Yang Q,2006 “ Aging  deteriorates the ability to trigger regular volitional saccades but, does not  deteriorate  the ability to produce express type of saccades” 
This finding  also suggests  that  the  so-called express-saccades may be innate, autonomous.
     
Miller P, Wang XJ. 2007   demonstrate analytically and computationally the exponential dependence of stability on the number of neurons in a self-excitatory network…“an  interesting ramping temporal dynamics as a result of sequentially switching an increasing number of  discrete,  bistable, units.”  Entrained to the music’s  dynamics ,  the vertical  saccades  may replicate  in  series  or  sequence,  stepped staccato  impacts  or  replicate smooth glissades

The Longevity of Engrams 
  
During the  visible longevity of an explicit  recursive visual-motion engram, Scenic  Motion Memory Engrams SMME.,  the  amplitude of the signals  attenuates  but frequencies remain unchanged   These  Engrams  retain coherent  pictorial  representations with complex confluent motions ,  and with state-dependent ☹  visible- longevities for a maximal  120 seconds  (C 7 , SMME ) Both visual-motion  and  the  Primary Graphic Engrams attenuate by 120 seconds  (   B5,   IXP  )  
 Audio - oculomotor “engrams”  : The lid traction, state-dependent    saccadic- response has been demonstrated  only up to 45 seconds during the  iterations of  brief  phrases   IXP   Miller P, Wang XJ. 2007 “  stability.. relates  to the stochastic fluctuations  in self-sustained  neuronal autocatalytic systems”. ……  Longevity of Engrams
  
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Related  Pathology  :   Echolalia  and Autism. 
                      
 Systemic  delays  in  attenuating  audio- motor engrams  may promote  the  utterances in echolalia , and the  perseverate ,  echoic  actions of autism 

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Evolutionary preserved  roles  for excitatory  responses  may  provide  important mechanisms in the formation of synapses  and activity in neuronal networks. 


There are, for each globe,  six anatomically  paired  extraocular  muscles.   Each  muscle  may function  as agonist  and/ or antagonist  in various  gazes . Intrinsic  efferent and  afferent  innervation  is  via  the  III, IV  and VI cranial  nerves,  with  modalities of  extrinsic  sensory input  also  via  visual  II   and auditory VIII,  vestibular  proprioceptive,   facial VII, …. and a   V trigeminal motor  connection .  mechanism in the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks.
The six extraocular  muscles, variously yoked  as agonists  and opponents,  are  innervated  by III, IV  and VI cranial  nerves,  with  modalities of  extrinsic  sensory input  via  visual  II   and auditory VIII,  vestibular  proprioceptive,  facial VII, and trigeminal. connections.                                                    
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PURPOSEFUL  HORIZONTAL  SACCADES

Western   Reading Patterns  employ  Horizontal Saccades  (see  TILT )
  
“Mathematical models of eye movements in reading suggest: a possible role for autonomous saccades.”  Engbert R, 2001     In  the normal print view , one  line @ Times 12 pt may be  processed  (  ie. read )  with three  saccades ,  enabling  some  300 msec for the processing of each  phrase ( perception  itself  requires   <  40 ms  exposure)   see TEXTONS. 

Structured  upon  innate and  developmental phonemes and upon  prosody,   skillful  reading   becomes  a  rhythmic quasi-autonomous  , inculcated activity:  Numerous  protocols and parafoveal  studies  approach  reading- saccades  as  predictive, “planned”, reactive, recursive,  and  express.   

Prosody, in Reading. Three  saccades,  two  each  of ~10 degrees to  the  right , and the  one 25 degree  return sweep  to the left ,  enable  three fixations .  With   a familiar content,   this  pattern can become an entrained, a   frequency –locked  performance ..  When reading silently , yet with this (inevitable ? ) non-articulated inner voice , the  phrasing of ~ 15-20   letters in a  well- written text may  often seem co-incidental with the reader’s visual  spans..  Until brought to their attention, many readers seem  unaware of their own non-articulated inner voice,  see “Private Speech”, Girbau  D  2007 . 
            
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Triggers  for  Vertical  Saccades 
                                    
Normally, a  purposeful  up-gaze is accompanied  by bilateral  elevation of the lids , synchronously  programmed  .  But with downward  traction   made on  both  upper lids , thwarting lid elevation,  a hyper responsive status in the  integrated  vertical –motion  generator which fires upon receipt  of  an uninhibited  audio signal .  Traction of  only one  lid ( both eyes being closed )  proves ineffective for this ocular audio-synkinesis 
Entrained  to selected  music dynamics ,  the vertical  saccades  replicate a sequence or a  series ,  stepped staccato  impacts , or  smooth glissades , dependent  upon the  pacing of the audio  stimuli 

Comment       The attribution  of  a bottom-up   reflex  ocular  elevations  to  a  startle –response -origin  is  plausible, generalized   when  these vertical  saccades  are  incited endogenously  by  silent   private speech …  .  However  ,  atavistic ..preserved   roles  for excitatory  responses  may  provide an important mechanism in the formation of synapses  and activity in neuronal networks.  
           
Robinson FR,  2001  “ Saccade-related activity in the interpositus nucleus is related to vertical saccades”.   
Moschovakis AK.2002    the vertical saccade-generating portion of the primate brain is evaluated.. .    in response to  electrical  stimulation of the superior colliculus,  an  ability to generate staircases of saccades  occurs …by.. resetting its integrator at the end of each saccade.  
van Beers RJ .2007   “Saccades with a longer than average duration have a smaller than average peak velocity; . saccade amplitude, duration, and peak velocity are all correlated with one another.  
Barlow SM  2006   reviews experimental findings on patterned movements ,  and  the modulation of central pattern generators (CPG) . 
Yang Q, 2006   “Aging  deteriorates the ability to trigger regular volitional saccades,  attributable  to the degeneration of central areas,  but… maintains … the ability to produce “express type of saccades’‘  from oculomotor cortical areas involved in the initiation of vertical saccades.
Moiseeva  VV   2007 “ An express saccade can be initiated ( autonomously ? ) by means of direct transmission of the signal from the cortex to the  brainstem saccadic generator .. by- passing  the superior colliculus” 
Isa T, Kobayashi Y  2004   'express saccades'….(  from  visual)    input appears to be transformed into motor output via a 'short-loop', brainstem-mediated pathway.
Will U, Berg E  .2007:  entrainment to periodic acoustic stimuli. The synchronization responses in the delta range may form part of the neurophysiological processes underlying time coupling between rhythmic sensory input and motor output. ‘.     
Miller P, Wang XJ.    2007   demonstrate analytically and computationally the exponential dependence of stability on the number of neurons in a self-excitatory network…“an  interesting ramping temporal dynamics as a result of sequentially switching an increasing number of  discrete,  bistable, units.”
Jancke L.2007        conclude that short-term  top-down training- based- auditory- imagery- of music- and- speech….    prompts involvement of distinct neural circuits residing in the perisylvian cortex.  
   
REFLEX   HORIZONTAL   SACCADES

Pterygoid  Muscle  Activities may  also  incite  Oculomotor Synkinesis 
 
“ The jaw-winking syndrome involves synkinesis of the pterygoid muscles and levator palpebrae superioris,  whence the eyelid retracts with mandibular movements…  a motor branch of the trigeminal nerve innervates the external pterygoid muscle.” Goodisson D, Snape  L.2000 *  The lateral pterygoid muscle  participates in fine control of horizontal  jaw  movements Bhutada MK.2004

SYNERGY FINDINGS,   with closed. or half –closed  eyes 

Repeated  Horizontal Saccades  of  a full 180 degrees, deliberately initiated , may entrain auxiliary   lateral  jaw  motions in the same directions                     
  As  implemented by alternating pterygoid  activity the  laterally gliding  motions at the tempero-mandibular joint,    can incite  brisk horizontal  saccades  of the globes 
  Horizontal  saccades  of the globe… … can    incite  horizontal  jaw movements , lateral gliding  motions at the tempero-mandibular IXP  2003  
 Repeating  mid-line  protrusion  of the jaw  may be  accompanied by ocular  convergence.

 .  Comment    The  progenitors of  pterygoid muscles  and of the ocular horizontal   muscles  shared an ontological  lineage.

Bhutada MK.2004   the lateral pterygoid muscle  participates in fine control of horizontal movements

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Evolutionary preserved role for excitatory  responses   provides an important mechanism in the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks. “Extraocular muscle precursors form tightly aggregated masses that en masse cross the crest :mesoderm interface to enter peri-ocular territories…. progenitors of individual muscles do not establish stable, permanent relations with their connective tissues until both populations reach the sites of their morphogenesis within branchial arches or orbital regions’’
 “Central pattern generation,  sub-serving  oro-facial motor behavior,  can be modulated via descending and sensory inputs of infrastructure for suck, respiration, and speech  . Barlow SM, 2006
                       
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Hoshino O  . Neural Comput 2007   " When a sound stimulus is presented to a subject, the auditory cortex first responds with transient discharges across a relatively large population of neurons, showing widespread-onset responses. "        including motor responses  IXP
            
RECURSIONS   in    EXCITABLE  MEDIA  
            
On-line  ENTRAINMENT ====  >> >>  off-line  ENGRAMS  
Learning >>>>>>>>>>> memory >>>>>>>  Recall  >>>>  memory 

Repeated  Horizontal Saccades  of  a full 180 degrees, when   deliberately initiated ,  may entrain  lateral  jaw  motions in the same direction :  a  pterygoid activity .

State- dependent Persistence    Audio  and  motor engrams  may  persist  unduly   in  Echolalia  and Autism.?    Hadano K  2007.. echolalia  in patients with cerebral infarction.  unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words   (  the  size  of  an  auto-engram  phrase ?  

Audio – and motor Engram- Persistence  in  Echolalia  and Autism ?
Hara H.  2007   So-called "idiopathic" autism, which exhibited no major complications before diagnosis is well-known as one of the risk factors for epilepsy. …>.25 %
Femia LA, 2002    co morbid conditions such as epileptiform discharge during sleep and sleep disorders… it is possible that autism could involve a breakdown in consolidation processes,
Legenstein R, Maass W.2008  On the classification capability of sign-constrained perceptrons The perceptron (also referred to as McCulloch-Pitts neuron, or linear threshold gate)

Issues:
                                                
1. Protective Ocular motions are  related to perceived  threat. 
2. Acoustic Experiences and also  unvoiced speech can incite Vertical Saccades:    
3. Discussion of State-Dependent Findings  ." Private Speech" Girbau D., 2007
4   "Highly Idiosyncratic and Verbal Specificity" see Tulving 1990, the implicit PRS, and the explicit Visual Engrams;  IXP.
5. Longevity of Engrams in the Graphic, Visual Motor, and the Audio-motor Domains .
6. Autonomous Vertical Ocular Saccades, and Neuro-anatomy  
7. Extreme Horizontal Saccades are linked to associated Pterygoid- muscle  motions