Visual Memory Research
The Genesis of Mnemonic Visual Systems 
Recurrent Dynamics in Excitable Media


A   LEARN-ING:  may be defined as  retention  of a  semantic input  ; verified  thereafter when the specific  item is  implicated by  behavior modification , verbal recall ,  or inferred from   cerebral-activities  detected  with electro-technology
A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. To make a gerund, you add "-ing" to the verb, just as with a present participle. The fundamental difference is that a gerund is a noun, while a participle is an adjective:

" A  VISUAL TASK ": generally   a  continuous viewing of one congruent  event within  one epoch of time     

  Tasks 'may be imposed  by  a  research protocol,  a restriction .

 In daily  life,   any visual  experiences ..(..whether undertaken  as  sought , as imposed ... or encountered "willy-nilly  ")  may be termed  a task, an undertaking or  a  project ,  or  an  incidental-  experience.


HRH: the  Red  Queen Saturday, July 19, 2008.. 1/5/2009
Dr .Charles  Dodson  ( Lewis  Carrol )  quotes  the Red Queen :
"When I use  a word ,  it shall  mean what I intend it to mean."                                                
"Once an imperative for all scholars,  the underlying significance of common technical words is becoming blurred " Shelfer LF, Isaacs JT .2008  ": In order to encourage appropriate usage of Terminologies, guidelines are presented advocating the simultaneous publication of pragmatic vocabularies supported by terminological material based on adequate ontological analysis. Baud RH,  2007

" The terms 'visual field', 'field of vision', 'stimulus field', and topographic 'brain maps'. often used as synonyms, yet  refer to different things.  Visual scientists should use these terms correctly to avoid conceptual and engineering confusion." Smythies J.1996  


Corruptions of words,  euphemisms  and  ambiguities  are  common  in vernacular  parlance .
Morphing  of terms  follows technical progress ...   and  with  interdisciplinary divergences .    


ADAPTATION:  a function  colloquially  and  generally  understood as the making of systematic  modifications  in order to  obtain  a new  condition ,  or to enable  a  secondary purpose.

 Barraza 2008 ."If the purpose of adaptation is to fit sensory systems to different environments, it may implement an optimization of the system.."

 " Photic  Adaptation": the  changes in Gain, or in the Dimensions of the Receptive Fields   

 Such  adaptation is  a process common  in biological evolution,  is seen  also in technological evolution , and in common speech   terms  are  subjected to  misapplications  , for instance.:

    The use of the term "adaptation" in the Motion-After-Effect  context suggests that the  MAE has a role other than that of  simple-resets  of cortical  motion functions ;  thus  the    functions are  comparable to the color- opponency resets of  the  common  contoured after-images.

PRIMING  is generally and historically  taken to mean a set-up or preparation for a forthcoming or anticipated event.;   however   priming  was   defined  by Tulving and Schacter  1990  as the  "implicit learning of  highly specific data ",  secured  by a  Perceptual Representational System, PRS."  In the present context  the installation of a semantic  engram  is  understood as an  acquisition , not as a  priming .         

 IN-STRUCTION :  Semantic input  presented to  sensory  system ;  items  arguably  not  necessarily  proven   retained  .

TRAINING :  inculcation  of motor loops in response to imposed  multimodal  signals : entrainment

IN-CULCATION :  Semantic  input  successfully  preserved in the sensory  system ;.  LEARNING: may be defined as  retention  of a  semantic input ;  deemed  accomplished when thereafter this specific  item  may be verified by recall,  by autonomous  engram  iteration, or  implicated by  behavior modification ,  or inferred from  some  cerebral-activities  detected  with electro-technology.                          

 MNEMONIC  RETENTION:   The acquisition of a  semantic engram is fundamentally a banking-of-information as  a short  or a long-term deposit,  rather than a" priming".     RECALL :  Successful,  specific deliberative  search.

RECURSIONS : The   Autonomous  Iteration  of Engrams 

ENCODING:   I understand  this term   may at times  refer to  the automatic .. and  inevitable ... acquisitions  of the  autonomous  engrams  .see Halpern BP. 2000

READING   :  Goal- oriented discriminations  within   scalar – hierarchies"  ?


       ADAPTATION  vs.   PRIMING.?           INSTRUCTION   vs.   INCULCATION.?    

              LEARNING  vs.  MNEMONIC  RETENTION .?       .RE CALL  vs.  ITERATION  ?   


Baud RH,  2007  " In order to encourage appropriate usage of terminologies, guidelines are presented advocating the simultaneous publication of pragmatic vocabularies supported by terminological material based on adequate ontological analysis''    Jahn RG, Dunne BJ   2007  recommend " a  more explicit and profound use of  interdisciplinary metaphors               

 Roots  or  Sources    eg.   GREEK  ....Dia-phanous      or    LATIN .....Trans-parent  

                                           COLLOQUIAL  .. " See-through "


                  " LEARNING " :   is"  HYSTERESIS  " : " is  PLASTIC ITY  "    

                                 "   FOR-GETTING   ?     The . . FORE-GOING         ......         

              "  RE-MEM BERING         RE-MIND        MNEM- ONIC     



                Dr .Charles  Dodson  ( Lewis  Carrol )  quotes  the Red Queen telling Alice :  

                      "When I use  a word ,  it shall  mean what I intend it shall  mean."  

                                            An  ENGRAM - GLOSSARY    

                Applicable  to a  discourse  focused  mainly  on  the  Engram Phenomena.  

 .                                Some   Terms ,  Assertions  and  Linkages .     IXP                                                                          

Rlchard Semon in   1904 , provided terms of his own invention ...". Engraphy,  Engram, and Ecphory." . in "order to avoid the potentially misleading connotations of ordinary language" .

     In this  Engram – context  " Cursor, Scanner  and  Lexor" '   refer to specific  neuro-sensory   entities . IXP;   

 Automata; .." neuro-biologically inspired agents "  Cortes JM  2007   !

Acculturations:  The  inculcate , learned  synaptic adaptations  which  autonomously conserve

                     and  process  innumerable archived lexical  engrams ...  enabling literacy.

 ACME :  Archived Compacted Engrams     High Storage.  B5<> 19

 Anchor , cyclopean  fixator ,  a singularity, " the  Grand Vizier " the  Cortical  Fixator.

 Acquisition;   the  point- for –point tempero-spatial  installation  of  a visual  primary  engram :    

 After- images...Temporary Photic- Scotomas ., Bi-stable resets .Such are not  Semantic Engrams.  

 Angular  subtense  :   that of  a primary  engram  matches   its on- line  originator’s subtense. 

Archives :    Numerous  Engrams  re-appear regimented in  simultaneous  displays 

 Associative learning.. .  is  contingent  upon  recursive  engrams 

Auto-catalytic Processes ..  bio-energetic  mechanisms  which sustain  mnemonic  recursions.

Automata;  ... “ neuro-biologically inspired” agents   Cortes JM  2007   !

 AVB... Autonomous Visual Brain

 Bandwidths for  these lexical  recursions can  toggle  across   4  - 40  Hz.   Essay. IIIc

Caesura .   a  " cloture"  for a  currently- nascent  engram    Essay VI a                                                                           Centering  1   the  Emplacements  of  textons during the  generation of  primary engrams

                 2  the   Aggregated  displays of the  multiple  archived  engrams,   ACME  

 Chunks    :   for the   motion-engrams ,  effective  with  epochs  of  3  to   30  seconds ;                                          .                :    for the  texts ,   one page  =  a chunk .

Coherent  Lexical  Processing   CLP   One lexical engram. a  Clip ! or  chunk.!   Topic  B 5  Coarse – Rendering.  the   standard  visual  rendering in  the  primary engrams  see   Malone BJ,        .               2007   Bar M.2006   

Consolidations  : the  putative ( often  nocturnal) verbatim processing  of lexical engrams

 Cognitive  Slate : =   a   30 degrees platform  =  three   10 degree  saccades  serve  for  acquisition of  most  lexical  engrams.

Consciousness ....." the  small candle on  the big  Cake ? "      see AVB                                      

Covert images:   Implicit data ,  but  potentially  explicit in  state- dependent  manifestations

Default activities   are  implemented  by  autonomous  recursive engrams ?, .

" Default "..   a response not solicited by an investigator ? 

 En-coding ?   Halpern BP.2000 . “  Sensory coding, decoding, and representations  ..  unnecessary and troublesome constructs”   ?   prefer " transforms ?."

ENGRAMS   Autonomous  memory- traces of  a single event ,. or of  a one- paged  text 

                        Sequenced images in time-locked memory packages                                             Entoptics ...     The endogenous  visual  images.

Entrainment :     see  Topic A 3  and music

Event - Horizon  :   the  tempero-spatial  constraint  limiting  any  one  discrete  engram

Explicit … visually perceptible ,ON-LINE ... or

Feature .  .a  portion,  or one  aspect, of  the whole item

FIXATOR   .   The cortical  focal  singularity,   linked  to... responding  to.. fed by

,                        .bi-foveal inputs .  Cognitive  ideocentric  Anchor .

Foveola    =  300  micron on retina,  its  lexor i subtends  one degree, 3- 4 characters  of  pt .12 TR

FOVEA    =  5  degrees  subtense  … the  para fovea  ~  10 +    degrees subtense Lexor ii

Grapheme  =  3- 4   textons  at  pt. 12 Times Roman Text  ( =  one degree fove-ola =  lexor i )

Gists : the “ bare bones ”  of   structures or  gestures   as  seen  in  a  coarse  primary  engram Hypnopompic  or hypnagogic states:  between sleep  < > and wake :  “ in  limbo ” Essay  VIII Holographic  .. Mnemonic dynamic  engrams  may be experienced  as if in four dimensions Hodology--the pattern of white matter connections between cortical areas   tractography.

Hub.   cyclopic   center  / axial pole   /  fixator   foveola /    umbo  / .        .                                                                     pivot- point /  belly-button . Singularity  ? 

Idiosyncratic  Images … those  fabricated  by imagery and in dreams .

.( distinct from this  default , autonomous , Engram-  phenomenon )

Implicit  ” with  unconscious inference”. see  Alhazen circa  .800

Inculcate .  “  sensory  or motion   patternings   imposed  into a   mnemonic  neural system ,   manifested  as engrams    ( learned )

Inlaying .   The  emergence, witnessed  entoptically in limbo,  of  an unrelated  5 degree  engram   arising  centrally  upon  a 30 degree lexical engram ,.   For reading , the angular  subtense  of  an  engram  matches its on- line  subtense = the perceptual lexical field.,

Installation ..The autonomous  generation  of an engram , synonymous perhaps with  priming  in some protocols , or with  adaptation  , as  (MAE ).

Inviolate .    engrams -  with intact borders

LEARNING :  is  here  ascribed  simply  to autonomous   imprintings  in  Engram systems 

Lexication:    Reading ,  specifically as   performed   off-line .

" LEXIGRAMS"   (arbitrary graphic stimuli)   SYMBOLS.  CIPHERS,  CODE.

 LEXORS ..    Autonomous  sensory  agents, explicit   with  the  re- readable  engram  texts  in limbo ( B 5 ) 

 lexor i :  of ~  one degree  diameter ;  this clocks  3- 4 tokens  @ 7-10  Hz..

 lexor ii  : of ~  5  degrees-  encompasses  Words   <  10   letters…(  opportunities  ) .seen                  Linear Lexor iii: .. a  narrow  horizontal strip < 10  degrees   which engages  Phrases (  ~ 5   words / 20  letters )  in  the mid- third  of a line of print on a  30  degree  engram

 Limbo :  tag    for   the  Hypnopompic state  : the  transitional - mental  -status - experienced - in the border - land   between- sleep- and- wake     See    ESSAY   X

 MAPS:  :   the   shiftable  network domains  which  enable  the  functional    read-outs  between  compilations of  several  archived engrams  ?   see  ESSAY    X

Memorable:    any supra- threshold  sensory  stimulus ? .

Memorized : ... in engram  ?  a  status  identified  by  re-iteration . or  “recall ” . 

Merging:   see  the  successful on- line  establishment  in  the  context  of  one  lexical  engram  assembled   with 100  overlapping  concordant  patterns    B5 <> ]

Noise    >>   see  stochastic resonance .

ON-LINE ,  verifiable  perceptions  of extrinsic items .

off-line ,   includes  the  intrinsic , subjective versions of verifiable Engrams

Oscillons   see  RSW  systems ,   D  12  .  

Parallel  Processing :   lock-step  reading  of contemporary spatial  motion   with  lexical engrams  

Phase-space. … the  domain of a  dynamic or lexical  engram .

Parity... For reading , that the angular  subtense  of  an  engram  which  matches its on- line  subtense, commonly the  30 degree   perceptual lexical field.                                                                        Parafoveal functions :   extend  to the 10 degree isopter ,  there  bracketed by the  ON  blind spots

Perception  =  Any  Salient image  (.... term  as used  elsewhere:  A percept   = on-line ... vs.

  an image   = off-line ”) ?

 PLASTICITY..  a  term here  eschewed

  Priming  :  ( Tulving 1990 )  Here understood as  the  acquisition or installation  of a primary engram   :. elsewhere, an imposed    hint or clue initiating a search for a target ? a  tip ? 

Priming  the  " INPUT"  by a  researcher ?   ' otherwise  the normal  ubiquitous  engram- intakes

Proscenium :   concept  here ,  the only  perceptual platform which  supports the  on-stage visual  percertions  ;   awake or asleep ;  and  is  anchored by the    FIXATOR , a singularity .

Primary engrams :  discrete  packets with   recursive  visible  longevity  of ~ 120 seconds .  

 Purple  Entoptic  :   A  Phenomenal annulus  evoked at  36+ Hz.  see  Topic  E <>13,14. 16 

Reading  "goal- oriented discriminations  with  scalar – hierarchies"  !!

Re-finements    .  seen  in  limbo ,  as    in the  Tertiary lexical  engrams   lp *

 Reverse  Inferences    :  see  Essay  X xxx      

 Resonances ..  Stochastic :  and  specific imposed oscillations  ;  II a   .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Qualia :  the  chroma, contrast,  luminance  or  resolution of  images  ?

Reading  skills  :  proceeding  from letter  re-cognitions.  ..up  to  vectors of attention.   

 Re- call:    A  solicited ,  deliberate  search  for an associated  archived  memory  ..  

 Re -play  or  Recursion :  here taken  as  an   autonomous    re-iteration. of  an engram.

 Scanning :  “ Mental- image scanning  is distinct from eye movements or commands.”

  Semantic   “ with  informational  content”..

  Stochastic  resonance   ..S R .has   a role  in  the umbral  viewing of  primary  engrams

 Tertiary engrams … those seen  in limbo .  

Transparency :  simultaneous  perception of  overlying images :   no  perceptual interfacing  is  seen between  exo- and endo- homo-topic images.

 Triggers ;.  Flicker   at  10 – 40 Hz.  can evoke a  visible  replay  of lexical engrams

Task :  a  continuous viewing of one congruent  event within  one epoch of time.                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 Trans- location     up- shifting of  an  engram across  the intrinsic  perceptive  field. 

Texton.. in a texture   local conspicuous features are  called textons (Julesz, 1980). 

 Texton gradients a  symbol,  cipher , number or  letter  (class i);  a word (class ii);    a phrase (class iii).   . these  are  visible  contiguous  elements  covering  areas,  or linear  segments ,    Elements  such as  tiles ,  ciphers,  symbols,  alpha-numeric letters , words or line-segments “  texture elements”.

 UMBRAL view   .  perceptions  obtained  with closed  illuminated lids in stochastic resonance   

Veridical  images:    the  on- line  perceptions of  confrontational  visual fields

Versions:    the  renderings  of engrams  as modified  by ambient light , noise ,  flicker, and time

Zipping .  reading  with smooth head motions only .


Richard Semon  1904  , described additional terms of his own invention " in order to avoid the potentially misleading connotations of ordinary language: Engraphy, Engram, and Ecphory. "


 Jahn RG, Dunne BJ. 2007    Science of the Subjective.    "....Any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented..  .and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. "

 However, Lehar  S 2003 commends  " the  primacy of subjective conscious experience.. rather than the modeling  of   the objective   neurophysiological state of the visual system ... which  supposedly subserves that experience " ..                   

Dehaene S  2007    " Understanding the extent and the limits of non-conscious processing is an important step on the road to a thorough understanding of the cognitive and cerebral correlates of conscious  perception "


                            Neuro-informatics , some Models andTheories .                                                                                                                                                                                                              

      The  following articles are  culled chiefly  from  Neural Comput. 2007 

 "…Current artificial systems do not match the robustness and versatility of their biological counterparts "                                                           .                                       Sinha P. 2002   Nat Neurosci. 2002 

Shimazaki H, Shinomoto S.  2007 …   to obtain a meaningful time-dependent histogram with the required accuracy…a   method for selecting the bin size of a time histogram:

*.    Engram  Acquisition :   empiric  tempero-spatial  parameters   See Essay  I 

 Burwick T.2007. self-organized segmention of two over-lapping patterns.

 The superposition problem . * Geometric  engram  perceptual rivalries   See Essay Va 

 *   Merging:   see  the  successful on- line  establishment in context  of  one  lexical  engram ,

    with 100  overlapping  concordant  patterns    B5

Burwick T.2007 .  Non- overlapping patterns can be simultaneously active with mutually different phases.

 *  see  Compacted   Multiple  lexical  engrams,>36 in miniaturized display  :   Essay  X.                     

Johansson C, Lansner A  .2007  In order to achieve high storage capacity  ..   at least 20 to 30 pyramidal neurons should be  compacted into a minicolumn and at least  50 to 60 minicolumns should be grouped into a hypercolumn                                                                                                              *  High  storage- capacity seen  with  multiplexed   intact  lexical  engrams  .  Essay  X  Multiple  Miniaturized  Lexical  Engrams :         

Stiesberg GR,  2007 ... living CPGs   as well as in model CPGs ..  are the most efficient in controlling   mechanical tasks, 

.See  B5   eg    Saccades  in reading ;   Prosody

Triesch J. 2007 Apr;19(4):885-909   Synergies between intrinsic and synaptic plasticity                                        

 *  Acculturations    Essay  X..

 Volman V   2007 , an enveloping astrocytic domain….  dependent on previous activity at this and other nearby synapses.*  See  D+D     D 12 ,  RSW.

Rolls ET, Stringer SM .2007   Invariant global motion... recognition in the dorsal visual system...: a unifying theory *    see C 7,

Renart A,   2007 Mean-driven and fluctuation-driven  persistent activity in recurrent networks     

 *.  Motion memory  , and  the   Enumeration  of  a vortex ;   engrams  serial - iterations      C 7     
Korn H, Faure P. 2003  ..  the role of neuronal attractors in information processing, perception and memory……. general issue of chaos  as a possible neuronal code and of the emerging concept of stochastic resonance…

* umbral view   L